Associations between Dietary Polyphenols and Type 2 Diabetes in a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the PREDIMED-Plus Trial: Role of Body Mass Index and Sex
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Hydroxybenzoic acidsHydroxycinnamic acidsPhenolic acidsDietObesityFlavonoidsCatechins
Tresserra-Rimbau, A., Castro-Barquero, S., Vitelli-Storelli, F., Becerra-Tomas, N., Vázquez-Ruiz, Z., Díaz-López, A., ... & Alonso-Gómez, Á. M. (2019). Associations between Dietary Polyphenols and Type 2 Diabetes in a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the PREDIMED-Plus Trial: Role of Body Mass Index and Sex. Antioxidants, 8(11), 537.
SponsorshipThe PREDIMED-Plus trial was supported by the official Spanish Institutions for funding scientific biomedical research, CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERobn) and Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), through the Fondo de Investigación para la Salud (FIS), which is co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund (four coordinated Fondo de Investigaciones Sanitarias projects leaded by J.S.-S. and J.V., including the following projects: PI13/00673, PI13/00492, PI13/00272, PI13/01123, PI13/00462, PI13/00233, PI13/02184, PI13/00728, PI13/01090, PI13/01056, PI14/01722, PI14/00636, PI14/00618, PI14/00696, PI14/01206, PI14/01919, PI14/00853, PI14/01374, PI14/00972, PI14/00728, PI14/01471, PI16/00473, PI16/00662, PI16/01873, PI16/01094, PI16/00501, PI16/00533, PI16/00381, PI16/00366, PI16/01522, PI16/01120, PI17/00764, PI17/01183, PI17/00855, PI17/01347, PI17/00525, PI17/01827, PI17/00532, PI17/00215, PI17/01441, PI17/00508, PI17/01732, and PI17/00926), the Especial Action Project entitled Implementación y evaluación de una intervención intensiva sobre la actividad física Cohorte PREDIMED-Plus grant to J.S.-S., European Research Council (Advanced Research Grant 2014–2019, 340918) to M.Á.M.-G., the Recercaixa grant to J.S.-S. (2013ACUP00194), grants from the Consejería de Salud de la Junta de Andalucía (PI0458/2013, PS0358/2016, and PI0137/2018), a grant from the Generalitat Valenciana (PROMETEO/2017/017), a SEMERGEN grant, a CICYT grant provided by the Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades (AGL2016-75329-R), and funds from the European Regional Development Fund (CB06/03). Food companies Hojiblanca (Lucena, Spain) and Patrimonio Comunal Olivarero (Madrid, Spain) donated extra virgin olive oil, and the Almond Board of California (Modesto, CA, USA), American Pistachio Growers (Fresno, CA, USA), and Paramount Farms (Wonderful Company, LLC, Los Angeles, CA, USA) donated nuts. J.K. was supported by the “FOLIUM” program within the FUTURMed project entitled Talent for the medicine within the future from the Fundació Institut d’Investigació Sanitària Illes Balears. This call was co-financed at 50% with charge to the Operational Program FSE 2014-2020 of the Balearic Islands.
Overweight and obesity are important risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Moving towards healthier diets, namely, diets rich in bioactive compounds, could decrease the odds of suffering T2D. However, those individuals with high body mass index (BMI) may have altered absorption or metabolism of some nutrients and dietary components, including polyphenols. Therefore, we aimed to assess whether high intakes of some classes of polyphenols are associated with T2D in a population with metabolic syndrome and how these associations depend on BMI and sex. This baseline cross-sectional analysis includes 6633 participants from the PREDIMED-Plus trial. Polyphenol intakes were calculated from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ). Cox regression models with constant time at risk and robust variance estimators were used to estimate the prevalence ratios (PRs) for polyphenol intake and T2D prevalence using the lowest quartile as the reference group. Analyses were stratified by sex and BMI groups (overweight and obese) to evaluate potential effect modification. Catechins, proanthocyanidins, hydroxybenzoic acids, and lignans were inversely associated with T2D. Hydroxycinnamic acids were directly related in men. These associations were different depending on sex and BMI, that is, women and overweight obtained stronger inverse associations.