Vitamin D Food Fortification and Nutritional Status in Children: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials
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AuthorBrandão Lima, Paula Nascimento; Santos, Beatriz da Cruz; Aguilera García, Concepción María; Santos Freire, Analícia Rocha; Saquete Martins-Filho, Paulo Ricardo; Viana Pires, Liliane
Enriched foodChildCholecalciferolErgocalciferolsDairy products
Brandão-Lima, P. N., Santos, B. D. C., Aguilera, C. M., Freire, A. R. S., Martins-Filho, P. R. S., & Pires, L. V. (2019). Vitamin D Food Fortification and Nutritional Status in Children: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials. Nutrients, 11(11), 2766.
SponsorshipThis research was funded by the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq/MS/SCTIE/DECIT/DAB/CGAN), grant number 440809/2017-7. In part by the Coordination of Improvement of Higher Education Personnel—Brazil (CAPES)—Finance Code 001. And by Unidad Científica de Excelencia Ejercicio y Salud (UCEES), University of Granada, Spain.
Children are in the risk group for developing hypovitaminosis D. Several strategies are used to reduce this risk. Among these, fortification of foods with vitamin D (25(OH)D) has contributed to the achievement of nutritional needs. This systematic review aims to discuss food fortification as a strategy for maintenance or recovery of nutritional status related to vitamin D in children. The work was developed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and registered in the International prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO) database (CRD42018052974). Randomized clinical trials with children up to 11 years old, who were offered vitamin D-fortified foods, and who presented 25(OH)D concentrations were used as eligibility criteria. After the selection stages, five studies were included, totaling 792 children of both sexes and aged between two and 11 years. Interventions offered 300–880 IU of vitamin D per day, for a period of 1.6–9 months, using fortified dairy products. In four of the five studies, there was an increase in the serum concentrations of 25(OH)D with the consumption of these foods; additionally, most children reached or maintained su ciency status. Moreover, the consumption of vitamin D-fortified foods proved to be safe, with no concentrations of 25(OH)D > 250 nmol/L. Based on the above, the fortification of foods with vitamin D can help maintain or recover the nutritional status of this vitamin in children aged 2–11 years. However, it is necessary to perform additional randomized clinical trials in order to establish optimal doses of fortification, according to the peculiarities of each region.