The Immunomodulatory Properties of Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Probiotics: A Novel Approach for the Management of Gastrointestinal Diseases
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Extracellular vesiclesGastrointestinal diseasesTight junctionsTLR signalingProbiotics
Molina-Tijeras, J. A., Gálvez, J., & Rodríguez-Cabezas, M. E. (2019). The immunomodulatory properties of extracellular vesicles derived from probiotics: A novel approach for the management of gastrointestinal diseases. Nutrients, 11(5), 1038.
SponsorshipThis work was supported by Junta de Andalucia (Spain) (research grants CTS 164 and PI-0206-2016) and the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (research grant AGL2015-67995-C3-3-R) and cofinanced by the Fondo Europeo de Desarollo Regional (FEDER) from the European Union. JA-MT is a Ph.D. student from the Postgraduate Program Nutricion y Ciencias de los Alimentos at the University of Granada (Spain). The CIBER-EHD is funded by the Instituto de Salud Carlos III.
Probiotics, included in functional foods, nutritional supplements, or nutraceuticals, exhibit different beneficial effects on gut function. They are extensively used to improve the digestive processes as well as reduce the symptoms and progression of different diseases. Probiotics have shown to improve dysbiosis and modulate the immune response of the host by interacting with different cell types. Probiotics and the host can interact in a direct way, but it is becoming apparent that communication occurs also through extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from probiotics. EVs are key for bacteria–bacteria and bacteria–host interactions, since they carry a wide variety of components that can modulate different signaling pathways, including those involved in the immune response. Interestingly, EVs are recently starting to be considered as an alternative to probiotics in those cases for which the use of live bacteria could be dangerous, such as immunocompromised individuals or situations where the intestinal barrier is impaired. EVs can spread through the mucus layer and interact with the host, avoiding the risk of sepsis. This review summarizes the existing knowledge about EVs from different probiotic strains, their properties, and their potential use for the prevention or treatment of different gastrointestinal diseases.