Synthesis of Pd/Ru Bimetallic Nanoparticles by Escherichia coli and Potential as a Catalyst for Upgrading 5-Hydroxymethyl Furfural Into Liquid Fuel Precursors
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AuthorGómez Bolívar, Jaime; Mikheenko, Iryna P.; Orozco, Rafael; Sharma, Surbhi; Banerjee, Dipanjan; Walker, Marc; Hand, Rachel; Merroun, Mohamed L.; Macaskie, Lynne
ruthenium bionanoparticlesPd/Ru core-shells5-hydroxymethyl furfural conversion2,5-dimethyl furan synthesiscellulose conversion
Gomez-Bolivar J, Mikheenko IP, Orozco RL, Sharma S, Banerjee D, Walker M, Hand RA, Merroun ML and Macaskie LE (2019) Synthesis of Pd/Ru Bimetallic Nanoparticles by Escherichia coli and Potential as a Catalyst for Upgrading 5-Hydroxymethyl Furfural Into Liquid Fuel Precursors. Front. Microbiol. 10:1276.
SponsorshipThe project was funded by NERC grant NE/L014076/1 to LM (Program: “Resource Recovery from Wastes”). The Science City Photoemission Facility used in this research was funded through the Science Cities Advanced Materials Project 1: “Creating and Characterizing Next Generation of Advanced Materials” with support from AWM and ERDF funds. The microscopy work was conducted at “Centro de Instrumentación Cientifica” at the University of Granada, Spain.
Escherichia coli cells support the nucleation and growth of ruthenium and ruthenium-palladium nanoparticles (Bio-Ru and Bio-Pd/Ru NPs). We report a method for the synthesis of these monometallic and bimetallic NPs and their application in the catalytic upgrading of 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF) to 2,5 dimethylfuran (DMF). Examination using high resolution transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) and high angle annular dark field (HAADF) showed Ru NPs located mainly at the cell surface using Ru(III) alone but small intracellular Ru-NPs (size 1–2 nm) were visible only in cells that had been pre-“seeded” with Pd(0) (5 wt%) and loaded with equimolar Ru. Pd(0) NPs were distributed between the cytoplasm and cell surface. Cells bearing 5% Pd/5% Ru showed some co-localization of Pd and Ru but chance associations were not ruled out. Cells loaded to 5 wt% Pd/20 wt% Ru showed evidence of core-shell structures (Ru core, Pd shell). Here, with MTHF as the reaction solvent the commercial Ru/C catalyst had little activity (100% conversion, negligible selectivity to DMF) whereas the 5 wt% Pd/5 wt% Rubio-bimetallic gave 100% conversion and 14% selectivity to DMF from material extracted from hydrolyzates. The results indicate a potential green method for realizing increased energy potential from biomass wastes as well as showing a bio-based pathway to manufacturing a scarcely described bimetallic material.