Establishing the Phenolic Composition of Olea europaea L. Leaves from Cultivars Grown in Morocco as a Crucial Step Towards Their Subsequent Exploitation
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AuthorOlmo García, Lucía; Bajoub, Aadil; Benlamaalam, Sara; Hurtado Fernández, Elena; Bagur González, María Gracia; Chigr, Mohammed; Mbarki, Mohamed; Fernández Gutiérrez, Alberto; Carrasco Pancorbo, Alegría
Olive leavesMoroccan regionPhenolic compoundsLiquid chromatography-mass spectrometryChemometricsMetabolic profiling
Olmo García, L. [et al.]. Establishing the Phenolic Composition of Olea europaea L. Leaves from Cultivars Grown in Morocco as a Crucial Step Towards Their Subsequent Exploitation. Molecules 2018, 23, 2524; doi:10.3390/molecules23102524.
SponsorshipThis research was funded by the Spanish Government (Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte) with a FPU fellowship (FPU13/06438), the Vice-Rector’s Office for International Relations and Development Cooperation of the University of Granada, and the contract 30C0366700 (OTRI, University of Granada, Spain)
In Morocco, the recovery of olive agro-industrial by-products as potential sources of high-added value substances has been underestimated so far. A comprehensive quantitative characterization of olive leaves’ bioactive compounds is crucial for any attempt to change this situation and to implement the valorization concept in emerging countries. Thus, the phenolic fraction of olive leaves of 11 varieties (‘Arbequina’, ‘Hojiblanca’, ‘Frantoio’, ‘Koroneiki’, ‘Lechín’, ‘Lucque’, ‘Manzanilla’, ‘Picholine de Languedoc’, ‘Picholine Marocaine’, ‘Picual’ and ‘Verdal’), cultivated in the Moroccan Meknès region, was investigated. Thirty eight phenolic or related compounds (including 16 secoiridoids, nine flavonoids in their aglycone form, seven flavonoids in glycosylated form, four simple phenols, one phenolic acid and one lignan) were determined in a total of 55 samples by using ultrasonic-assisted extraction and liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-IT MS). Very remarkable quantitative differences were observed among the profiles of the studied cultivars. ‘Picholine Marocaine’ variety exhibited the highest total phenolic content (around 44 g/kg dry weight (DW)), and logically showed the highest concentration in terms of various individual compounds. In addition, chemometrics (principal components analysis (PCA) and stepwise-linear discriminant analysis (s-LDA)) were applied to the quantitative phenolic compound data, allowing good discrimination of the selected samples according to their varietal origin.