Maternal, fetal and perinatal alterations associated with obesity, overweight and gestational diabetes: an observational cohort study (PREOBE)
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AuthorBerglund, Staffan K.; García-Valdés, Luz; Torres-Espínola, Francisco J.; Segura, María Teresa; Martínez-Zaldivar Moreno, Cristina; Aguilar Cordero, María José; Agil Abdalla, Mhmad Ahmad; Lorente Acosta, José Antonio; Florido Navio, Jesús; Padilla Vinuesa, María del Carmen; Altmae, Signe; Marcos, Ascensión; López-Sabater, María del Carmen; Campoy Folgoso, Cristina
PregnancyMaternal overweightMaternal obesityGestational diabetesOffspringFetal nutritionEarly programmingVitamin B12FolateIron statusGlucose metabolism
Berglund, S. K.; et al. Maternal, fetal and perinatal alterations associated with obesity, overweight and gestational diabetes: an observational cohort study (PREOBE). BMC Public Health, 16: 207 (2016). [http://hdl.handle.net/10481/49956]
SponsorshipThis study was granted by Spanish Ministry of Innovation and Science. Junta de Andalucía: Excellence Projects (P06-CTS-02341); Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (BFU2012-40254-C03-01); Research post-doctoral fellowship from the Alfonso Martín Escudero Foundation; MyNewGut FP7 EU Project (Grant agreement n° 613979); DynaHEALTH EU Project HORIZON 2020 (Grant agreement n°: 633595-2); Marie Curie post-doctoral fellowship (FP7, no. 329812, NutriOmics); The first author received Post Doc scholarships from Henning and Johan Throne-Holst’s foundation, and the Swedish Research Council for Health, Working life and Welfare (FORTE, ref 2014–2648).
Background: Maternal overweight, obesity, and gestational diabetes (GD) have been negatively associated with offspring development. Further knowledge regarding metabolic and nutritional alterations in these mother and their offspring are warranted. Methods: In an observational cohort study we included 331 pregnant women from Granada, Spain. The mothers were categorized into four groups according to BMI and their GD status; overweight (n:56), obese (n:64), GD (n:79), and healthy normal weight controls (n:132). We assessed maternal growth and nutritional biomarkers at 24 weeks (n = 269), 34 weeks (n = 310) and at delivery (n = 310) and the perinatal characteristics including cord blood biomarkers. Results: Obese and GD mothers had significantly lower weight gain during pregnancy and infant birth weight, waist circumference, and placental weight were higher in the obese group, including a significantly increased prevalence of macrosomia. Except for differences in markers of glucose metabolism (glucose, HbA1c, insulin and uric acid) we found at some measures that overweight and/or obese mothers had lower levels of transferrin saturation, hemoglobin, Vitamin B12 and folate and higher levels of C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, ferritin, and cortisol. GD mothers had similar differences in hemoglobin and C-reactive protein but higher levels of folate. The latter was seen also in cord blood. Conclusions: We identified several metabolic alterations in overweight, obese and GD mothers compared to controls. Together with the observed differences in infant anthropometrics, these may be important biomarkers in future research regarding the programming of health and disease in children. Trial registration: The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov, identifier (NCT01634464).