Role of Lipids in the Onset, Progression and Treatment of Periodontal Disease. A Systematic Review of Studies in Humans
MetadataShow full item record
AuthorVarela López, Alfonso; Giampieri, Francesca; Bullón, Pedro; Battino, Maurizio; Quiles Morales, José Luis
DietFatty acidsPolyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)NutritionOral healthPeriodontitis
Varela-López, A.; et al. Role of Lipids in the Onset, Progression and Treatment of Periodontal Disease. A Systematic Review of Studies in Humans. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 17(8): 1202 (2016). [http://hdl.handle.net/10481/49193]
SponsorshipAlfonso Varela-López is recipient of a fellowship of FPU program from the Spanish Ministry of Education. Authors acknowledge to the University of Granada and the Autonomous Government of Andalusia for partial support of the research team.
The risk of different oral problems (root caries, tooth mobility, and tooth loss) can be increased by the presence of periodontal disease, which has also been associated with a growing list of systemic diseases. The presence of some bacteria is the primary etiology of this disease; a susceptible host is also necessary for disease initiation. In this respect, the progression of periodontal disease and healing of the periodontal tissues can be modulated by nutritional status. To clarify the role of lipids in the establishment, progression, and/or treatment of this pathology, a systematic review was conducted of English-written literature in PubMed until May 2016, which included research on the relationship of these dietary components with the onset and progression of periodontal disease. According to publication type, randomized-controlled trials, cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies were included. Among all the analyzed components, those that have any effect on oxidative stress and/or inflammation seem to be the most interesting according to current evidence. On one hand, there is quite a lot of information in favor of a positive role of n-3 fatty acids, due to their antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects. On the other hand, saturated fat-rich diets increase oxidative stress as well the as intensity and duration of inflammatory processes, so they must be avoided.