Accumulation of scandium in plasma in patients with chronic renal failure
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AuthorSánchez-González, Cristina; López-Chaves, Carlos; Rivas-García, Lorenzo; Galindo, Pilar; Gómez-Aracena, Jorge; Aranda Ramírez, Pilar; Llopis González, Juan
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Sánchez-González, C.; et al. Accumulation of scandium in plasma in patients with chronic renal failure. Scientific World Journal, 2013: 782745 (2013). [http://hdl.handle.net/10481/32052]
SponsorshipThis research was supported by Plan Nacional I+D Project 1FD 1997-0642.
Scandium (Sc) is an element with many industrial applications, but relatively little is known about its physiological and/or toxicological effects, and very little data are available concerning the role of Sc in chronic renal failure (CRF). This paper examines the changes in plasma levels of Sc in predialysis patients with CRF and the relationship with blood parameters. The participants in this trial were 48 patients with CRF in predialysis and 53 healthy controls. Erythrocyte, haemoglobin, and haematocrit counts in blood were determined, and levels of creatinine, urea, uric acid, albumin, total protein and Sc were measured in plasma. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault index. The CRF patients were found to have higher plasma levels of creatinine, urea, uric acid, albumin, total protein, and Sc and a lower GFR than that the controls. Scandium in plasma was positively correlated with creatinine and plasma urea and negatively correlated with GFR, haemoglobin, and haematocrit and was associated with the risk of lower levels of erythrocytes, haemoglobin, and haematocrit. CRF was associated with increases in the circulating levels of scandium.