Effect of functionalized titanium particles with dexamethasone-loaded nanospheres on macrophage polarization and activity
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AuthorChato-Astrain, Jesús; Toledano-Osorio, Manuel; Alaminos Mingorance, Miguel; Toledano, Manuel; Sanz, Mariano; Osorio Ruiz, Raquel
Chato-Astrain, J., Toledano-Osorio, M., Alaminos, M., Toledano, M., Sanz, M., & Osorio, R. (2023). Effect of functionalized titanium particles with dexamethasone-loaded nanospheres on macrophage polarization and activity. Dental Materials.
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of titanium micro particles (TiP) previously functionalized with nanoparticles doped with dexamethasone (Dex) and doxycycline (Dox), on macrophage polarization and activity. Methods: Macrophages RAW264.7 were cultured in the presence TiP loaded with dexamethasone -NPs (Dex)- and doxycycline -NPs (Dox)-, and as control, TiP with or without doped NPs. Cells were tested with and without previous bacterial lipopolysaccharide endotoxin (LPS) stimulation. Their morphology, proliferation, cytotoxicity, phenotypic change, and cytokines release were assessed by LIVE/DEAD, DNA release, metabolic activity, brightfield and scanning electron microscopy. The test Kruskall-Wallis was used for comparisons, while the cytokine expression profiles were examined by hierarchical clustering (p<0.05). Results: Upon exposure with TiP macrophages were activated and polarized to M1, but without depicting cytotoxic effects. The particles were phagocytised, and vacuolized. When exposed to functionalised TiP with NPs(Dex) and NPs(Dox), the ratio M1/M2 was up to forty times lower compared to TiP alone. When exposed to LPS, TiP reduced cell viability in half. Functionalised TiP with NPs(Dex) inhibited the cytokine release exerted by TiP on macrophages. When macrophages were exposed to functionalised TiPs with NPs(Dex) with and without LPS, the effect of TiP on cytokine secretion was inhibited. Significance: Functionalised TiPs with NPs(Dex) and NPs(Dox) may potentially have beneficial effects on modulating titanium and LPS-related inflammatory reactions.