Hydrothermal Transformation of Eggshell Calcium Carbonate into Apatite Micro-Nanoparticles: Cytocompatibility and Osteoinductive Properties
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CalciteApatiteOrganic matrixHydrothermal conversionCytocompatibilityOsteogenic differentiation
Torres-Mansilla, A.; Álvarez-Lloret, P.; Fernández-Penas, R.; D’Urso, A.; Baldión, P.A.; Oltolina, F.; Follenzi, A.; Gómez-Morales, J. Hydrothermal Transformation of Eggshell Calcium Carbonate into Apatite Micro-Nanoparticles: Cytocompatibility and Osteoinductive Properties. Nanomaterials 2023, 13, 2299. [https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13162299]
SponsorshipSpanish Agencia Estatal de Investigación of the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación y Universidades (MCIU); Bioscaffold project PGC2018-102047-B-I00 (MCIU/AEI/FEDER, UE); Ministry of Science, Technology, and Innovation of Colombia; MCIN project PCI2019–111931-2; European Regional Development Fund–ERDF—Next Generation/EU program; MCI/AEI/10.13039/501100011033 (Spain) PCI2020-112108; European Union “NextGeneration/PRTR”; European Union (H2020), CASEAWA of ERA-NET, PCI2020-112108; University of Granada, Scientific Instrumentation Centre (CIC); University of Oviedo, Scientific and Technical Services
The eggshell is a biomineral consisting of CaCO3 in the form of calcite phase and a pervading organic matrix (1-3.5 wt.%). Transforming eggshell calcite particles into calcium phosphate (apatite) micro-nanoparticles opens the door to repurposing the eggshell waste as materials with potential biomedical applications, fulfilling the principles of the circular economy. Previous methods to obtain these particles consisted mainly of two steps, the first one involving the calcination of the eggshell. In this research, direct transformation by a one-pot hydrothermal method ranging from 100-200 C-circle was studied, using suspensions with a stoichiometric P/CaCO3 ratio, K2HPO4 as P reagent, and eggshells particles (phi < 50 mu m) both untreated and treated with NaClO to remove surface organic matter. In the untreated group, the complete conversion was achieved at 160 C-circle, and most particles displayed a hexagonal plate morphology, eventually with a central hole. In the treated group, this replacement occurred at 180 C-circle, yielding granular (spherulitic) apatite nanoparticles. The eggshell particles and apatite micro-nanoparticles were cytocompatible when incubated with MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells and m17.ASC murine mesenchymal stem cells and promoted the osteogenic differentiation of m17.ASC cells. The study results are useful for designing and fabricating biocompatible microstructured materials with osteoinductive properties for applications in bone tissue engineering and dentistry.