Evaluation and Analysis of the Effectiveness of the Main Mitigation Measures against Surface Urban Heat Islands in Different Local Climate Zones through Remote Sensing
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AuthorHidalgo García, David
Surface urban heat islandLand surface temperatureHeat mitigation and albedo
Hidalgo García, D. Evaluation and Analysis of the Effectiveness of the Main Mitigation Measures against Surface Urban Heat Islands in Different Local Climate Zones through Remote Sensing. Sustainability 2023, 15, 10410. [https://doi.org/10.3390/su151310410]
The significant transformation of land use as a consequence of current population growth, together with global warming (atmospheric emissions and extreme weather events), is generating increases in ambient temperatures. This circumstance is affecting people’s quality of life, especially those considered more vulnerable or with fewer economic resources. Currently, 30% of the world’s population suffers climatic conditions of extreme heat, and forecasts indicate that in the next 20 years, this number will reach 74%. The present study analyzes the effectiveness of the main mitigation strategies for the surface urban heat island (SUHI) effect between the years 2002 and 2022 in the different local climate zones of the city of Granada (Spain). Using Landsat 5 and 8 images, the evolution experienced by the land surface temperature and the surface urban heat island was determined and connected to the following variables: normalized difference vegetation index, vegetal proportion, normalized difference building index, and albedo. Our results indicate that compact and industrial areas have higher temperatures and lower vegetation and albedo in contrast to open areas, which have lower temperatures and higher vegetation and albedo. The mitigation measures analyzed presented similar efficiencies, but a greater minimization of the SUHI was reported when vegetation was increased in open areas as opposed to in closed areas, where the increase in albedo was more effective. Our study will allow the implementation of more efficient measures based on the types of LCZs in cities.