Effects of infant feeding with goat milk formula or cow milk formula on atopic dermatitis: protocol of the randomised controlled Goat Infant Formula Feeding and Eczema (GIraFFE) trial
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Ferry JM, Galera-Martínez R, Campoy C, et al. Effects of infant feeding with goat milk formula or cow milk formula on atopic dermatitis: protocol of the randomised controlled Goat Infant Formula Feeding and Eczema (GIraFFE) trial. BMJ Open 2023;13:e070533. [doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2022-070533]
SponsorshipDairy Goat Co-operative (NZ) Limited; New Zealand Ministry for Primary Industries PGP06-16001; Else Kröner-Fresenius-Foundation; LMU Medical Faculty; LMU University Hospitals
Introduction Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, inflammatory skin condition significantly affecting quality of life. A small randomised trial showed an approximately one-third lower incidence of AD in goat milk formula-fed compared with cow milk formula-fed infants. However, due to limited statistical power, AD incidence difference was not found to be significant. This study aims to explore a potential risk reduction of AD by feeding a formula based on whole goat milk (as a source of protein and fat) compared with a formula based on cow milk proteins and vegetable oils. Methods and analysis This two-arm (1:1 allocation), parallel, randomised, double-blind, controlled nutritional trial shall enrol up to 2296 healthy term-born infants until 3 months of age, if parents choose to start formula feeding. Ten study centres in Spain and Poland are participating. Randomised infants receive investigational infant and follow-on formulas either based on whole goat milk or on cow milk until the age of 12 months. The goat milk formula has a whey:casein ratio of 20:80 and about 50% of the lipids are milk fat from whole goat milk, whereas the cow milk formula, used as control, has a whey:casein ratio of 60:40 and 100% of the lipids are from vegetable oils. The energy and nutrient levels in both goat and cow milk formulas are the same. The primary endpoint is the cumulative incidence of AD until the age of 12 months diagnosed by study personnel based on the UK Working Party Diagnostic Criteria. The secondary endpoints include reported AD diagnosis, measures of AD, blood and stool markers, child growth, sleep, nutrition and quality of life. Participating children are followed until the age of 5 years. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained from the ethical committees of all participating institutions. Trial registration number NCT04599946.