Presence and Relevance of Emerging Microorganisms in Clinical Genitourinary Samples
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AuthorRosales Castillo, Antonio; Expósito Ruiz, Manuela; Gutiérrez-Soto, Miguel; Navarro Marí, José María; Gutiérrez Fernández, José
Genital and urinary infectionEmerging pathogensClinical significance
Rosales-Castillo, A.; Expósito-Ruiz, M.; Gutiérrez-Soto, M.; Navarro-Marí, J.M.; Gutiérrez-Fernández, J. Presence and Relevance of Emerging Microorganisms in Clinical Genitourinary Samples. Microorganisms 2023, 11, 915. [https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11040915]
Abstract: Microorganisms responsible for genitourinary infections increasingly include species other than conventional etiological agents that are of clinical and pathogenic relevance and therapeutic interest. This cross-sectional descriptive study selected samples from clinical genitourinary episodes between January 2016 and December 2019 in which emerging microbiological agents were detected. The patients’ epidemiological characteristics, clinical presentation, antibiotic treatment, and outcome were studied to identify their pathogenic role. The emerging microorganisms most frequently detected in urinary tract infections were Streptococcus bovis (58.5%) and Gardnerella spp. (23.6%) in females and S. bovis (32.3%), Aerococcus urinae (18.6%), and Corynebacterium spp. (16.9%) in males, while the most frequently detected in genital infections were S. viridans (36.4%) in females and C. glucuronolyticum (32.2%) and Gardnerella spp. (35.6%) in males. All cases in female children were produced by S. bovis. Symptomatic episodes were more frequent with Aerococcus spp. and S. bovis and the presence of leukocytosis more frequent with Aerococcus spp. Quinolones and doxycycline were most often prescribed antibiotics for genital infections and quinolones and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid for urinary infections. Urinary infection by Aerococcus spp. was more frequent in males of advanced age, Corynebacterium spp. was more frequent in permanent vesical catheter carriers, and episodes of asymptomatic bacteriuria by Gardnerella spp. were more frequent in patients with kidney transplant and chronic consumers of corticosteroid therapy. Lactobacillus spp. should be considered in urinary infections of patients of advanced age and with a previous antibiotic load. Genital infection by Gardnerella spp. was significantly associated with a history of risky sexual relations.