Drag reduction on a blunt body by self-adaption of rear flexibly hinged flaps
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AuthorGarcía-Baena, C.; Camacho Sánchez, J.M; Lorite Diez, M.; Gutiérrez Montes, C.; Jiménez-González, J. I.
Drag reductionBluff bodyPassive controlFlexible flapSelf-adaptive flap
C. García-Baena, J.M. Camacho-Sánchez, M. Lorite-Díez et al. Drag reduction on a blunt body by self-adaption of rear flexibly hinged flaps. Journal of Fluids and Structures 118 (2023) 103854 [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfluidstructs.2023.103854]
SponsorshipJunta de Andalucia FEDER-UJA 1262764; Universidad de Jaen; European Commission; Spanish MCIN/AEI PDC2021-121288-I00; European Union Next Generation EU/PRTR
We study the aerodynamics of a blunt-based body with rear flexibly-hinged rigid flaps, subject to a turbulent flow of Reynolds number Re = 12000, under aligned and cross flow conditions with yaw angle β = 0◦ and β = 4◦. To that aim, different values of the equivalent torsional stiffness are considered, to cover the range of reduced velocity U∗ = (0, 3.48] in water tank experiments. The effect of the angular deflection of plates on the drag and near wake flow is analyzed, experimentally and numerically. The results show that, in the range of U∗ herein considered, the plates undergo an inwards quasi-static, self-adaptive deflection, which is symmetric for yaw angles β = 0◦ and asymmetric for β = 4◦. In particular, the plates feature small mean deformation angles for values of U∗ < 1, whereas a sharp and monotonic increase of such deflection occurs for U∗ > 1, i.e. for lower values of the hinge’s stiffness, with an asymptotic trend towards the larger values of U∗. A critical value of reduced velocity of U∗ ≃ 0.96 is obtained as the instability threshold above which plates depart from their initial equilibrium position. The progressive streamlining of the trailing edge translates into significant reductions of the associated mean drag coefficients. Thus, reductions close to 19% with respect to reference static plates configurations are obtained for the most flexible case of U∗ = 3.48 for both β = 0◦ and β = 4◦. A close inspection of the near wake reveals that the inwards progressive mean displacement of the plates yields a reduction in the recirculation bubble size. A symmetric evolution of the recirculating bubble is observed for β = 0◦, whereas the bubble becomes asymmetric for β = 4◦, with a larger leeward clockwise vortex. In both cases, the drag coefficient is shown to vary linearly with the global aspect ratio of the recirculating bubble. The analysis of the numerical results shows that the reduced extension of the recirculating bubble significantly alters the formation length and intensity of the eddies size and associated pressure. It is observed that despite the local pressure decrease in the vortices shed from the trailing edges, the plates self adaption reduces their size and prevents the eddies from entering the cavity, thus, creating a dead flow region with a consequent pressure increase at the body base.