Dietary Tryptophan Supplementation Implications on Performance, Plasma Metabolites, and Amino Acid Catabolism Enzymes in Meagre (Argyrosomus regius)
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Amino acidsAquacultureMeagreSupplemented dietsTryptophanWelfare
Teixeira, C.; Pedrosa, R.; Castro, C.; Magalhães, R.; Matos, E.; Oliva-Teles, A.; Peres, H.; Pérez-Jiménez, A. Dietary Tryptophan Supplementation Implications on Performance, Plasma Metabolites, and Amino Acid Catabolism Enzymes in Meagre (Argyrosomus regius). Fishes 2023, 8, 141. [https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes8030141]
SponsorshipOcean3R project NORT-01-0145-FEDER-000064; North Portugal Regional Operational Program (NORT2020) under the PORTUGAL 2020 Partnership Agreement; European Commission; Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia (FCT) 2022.10117.BD
Tryptophan (Trp) is an essential amino acid, commercially available as a feed-grade product, and is a precursor to serotonin and melatonin, which are both important molecules in stress mitigation. Meagre have a high potential for marine aquaculture diversification but are highly susceptible to stressful conditions. This study aimed to assess the potential role of dietary tryptophan supplementation in meagre juveniles in order to minimize the deleterious effect of potential stress conditions. For this, a growth trial was performed wherein meagre juveniles were fed four isoproteic (45%DM) and isolipidic (16%DM) diets; namely, a control diet, and three diets similar to the control diet but supplemented with varying levels of tryptophan, graded according to the resulting percentage in each diet’s dry matter (Control, 0.25%Trp, 0.5%Trp, and 1%Trp), corresponding to a total dietary tryptophan of 1.06, 1.70, 2.08, and 3.24 g 16 g−1 N, respectively. Diets were tested in triplicate, and fish were fed twice a day, six days a week, for eight weeks. Five days after the end of the growth trial, a time-course blood sampling was performed at 0 h, 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, and 12 h after feeding. At the 6 h sampling point, the liver was also collected. Overall, our results indicate that 1Trp supplementation (total dietary Trp 3.24 g 16 g−1 N) may be harmful to fish, decreasing growth performance and feed utilization, although doses up to 0.5Trp do not influence these parameters. Voluntary feed intake lineally decreased with the increase in the level of dietary Trp. Whole-body lipid content decreased at the highest tryptophan inclusion, whereas no changes were observed in protein levels. After 12 h from feeding, plasma glucose levels were lower in all dietary treatments supplemented with tryptophan compared to those observed in the control. Hepatic enzyme activity of protein catabolism decreased with dietary Trp inclusion. Overall, our results suggested that while a dietary Trp level increase of up to 2.08 g 16 g−1 N did not affect growth performance and feed efficiency, both these parameters were severely compromised with a Trp level of 3.24 g 16 g−1 N.