Efficacy of Specific Trunk Exercises in the Balance Dysfunction of Patients with Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
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Parkinson’s diseaseTrunk exercisesPhysical therapy
López-Liria, R.; Vega-Tirado, S.; Valverde-Martínez, M.Á.; Calvache-Mateo, A.; Martínez-Martínez, A.M.; Rocamora-Pérez, P. Efficacy of Specific Trunk Exercises in the Balance Dysfunction of Patients with Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sensors 2023, 23, 1817. [https://doi.org/10.3390/s23041817]
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative pathology classified as a movement disorder. Physical exercise within a physiotherapy program is an important element to improve postural stability, balance and mobility in order to reduce falls in people with PD. The aim of this work was to determine the efficacy of specific balance and trunk mobility exercises, as well as their benefits for and effects on patients with idiopathic PD. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted according to PRISMA standards. The search was performed in five databases: Cochrane Library, SciELO, PEDro, Scopus and PubMed, in February 2022 with the following descriptors: Parkinson’s disease, trunk, exercise, therapy and physical therapy. The inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) over the last ten years. A meta-analysis on static and dynamic balance was conducted with the software Review Manager. Nine articles met the objectives and inclusion criteria, with a total of 240 participants. The trials had moderate methodological quality according to the PEDro scale. The studies included differed with regard to intervention protocol and outcome measures. Finally, eight studies were included in a quantitative analysis in which it was shown that trunk-specific exercises interventions did not significantly improve static balance (SMD = −0.10, 95% CI = −0.29, 0.08; p = 0.28) or dynamic balance (SMD = 0.64 95% CI = −0.24, 1.52; p = 0.15). However, significant differences were found in static balance measured subjectively using the Berg Balance Scale (SMD = −0.52, 95% CI = −1.01, −0.02; p = 0.04). Although some differences were not significant, the studies included in this systematic review consider that specific trunk exercises or balance training combined with muscle strengthening in patients with idiopathic PD should be a complement to pharmacological treatment for improving balance dysfunction and postural instability, preventing falls and promoting wellness.