Phosphorylation of Thr9 Affects the Folding Landscape of the N-Terminal Segment of Human AGT Enhancing Protein Aggregation of Disease-Causing Mutants
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Conformational landscapeSpectroscopyCircular dichroismNMRPhosphorylationMutationGenetic diseaseProtein misfoldingPrimary hyperoxaluria type IStatistical mechanics
Neira, J.L... [et al.]. Phosphorylation of Thr9 Affects the Folding Landscape of the N-Terminal Segment of Human AGT Enhancing Protein Aggregation of Disease-Causing Mutants. Molecules 2022, 27, 8762. [https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27248762]
SponsorshipComunidad Valenciana CIAICO/2021/135 AULA FUNCANIS-UGR; ERDF/Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation, and Universities-State Research Agency RTI2018-096246-B-I00; Junta de Andalucia P18-RT-2413 ERDF/ Counseling of Economic transformation, Industry, Knowledge, and Universities B-BIO-84-UGR20
The mutations G170R and I244T are the most common disease cause in primary hyperoxaluria type I (PH1). These mutations cause the misfolding of the AGT protein in the minor allele AGT-LM that contains the P11L polymorphism, which may affect the folding of the N-terminal segment (NTT-AGT). The NTT-AGT is phosphorylated at T9, although the role of this event in PH1 is unknown. In this work, phosphorylation of T9 was mimicked by introducing the T9E mutation in the NTT-AGT peptide and the full-length protein. The NTT-AGT conformational landscape was studied by circular dichroism, NMR, and statistical mechanical methods. Functional and stability effects on the full-length AGT protein were characterized by spectroscopic methods. The T9E and P11L mutations together reshaped the conformational landscape of the isolated NTT-AGT peptide by stabilizing ordered conformations. In the context of the full-length AGT protein, the T9E mutation had no effect on the overall AGT function or conformation, but enhanced aggregation of the minor allele (LM) protein and synergized with the mutations G170R and I244T. Our findings indicate that phosphorylation of T9 may affect the conformation of the NTT-AGT and synergize with PH1-causing mutations to promote aggregation in a genotype-specific manner. Phosphorylation should be considered a novel regulatory mechanism in PH1 pathogenesis.