Exercise, Mediterranean Diet Adherence or Both during Pregnancy to Prevent Postpartum Depression—GESTAFIT Trial Secondary Analyses
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AuthorDe la Flor Alemany, Marta; Hidalgo Migueles, Jairo; Alemany Arrebola, Inmaculada; Aparicio García-Molina, Virginia; Baena García, Laura
DepressionDietMediterraneanExercisePostpartum periodPregnant women
Flor-Alemany, M... [et al.]. Exercise, Mediterranean Diet Adherence or Both during Pregnancy to Prevent Postpartum Depression—GESTAFIT Trial Secondary Analyses. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 14450. [https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192114450]
SponsorshipRegional Ministry of Health of the Junta de Andalucia PI-0395-2016; Research and Knowledge Transfer Fund (PPIT) 2016, Excellence Actions Programme: Scientific Units of Excellence (UCEES); Regional Ministry of Economy, Knowledge, Enterprises, and University; European Regional Development Funds of the University of Granada SOMM17/6107/UGR; Spanish Government FPU17/03715
Targeting lifestyle behaviors during pregnancy is crucial to prevent the highly prevalent postpartum depression and its consequences. In these secondary analyses of an intervention trial to investigate the effects of concurrent exercise training on postpartum depression, we aimed to investigate the potential role of Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence on the exercise effects. A total of 85 pregnant women met the per-protocol criteria (exercise n = 46, control n = 39). The exercise program was delivered in 60 min sessions, 3 days/week, from the 17th gestational week until birth. Women's dietary habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. The Mediterranean Food Pattern (an MD index) was derived from it to assess MD adherence. We used the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale to assess postpartum depression. The postpartum depression score was not statistically different between control and exercise groups (p > 0.05). A higher consumption of fruits (beta = -0.242, p = 0.022), lower intake of red meat and subproducts (beta = 0.244, p = 0.020), and a greater MD adherence (beta = -0.236, p = 0.027) were associated with lower levels of postpartum depression. Greater adherence to the MD during pregnancy was associated with fewer depressive symptoms and a lower risk of postpartum depression. Postnatal depression was not reduced by prenatal exercise. Promoting fruit consumption while controlling the intake of red meat during pregnancy might prevent postnatal depression.