Increasing the Lateral Resolution of 3D-GPR Datasets through 2D-FFT Interpolation with Application to a Case Study of the Roman Villa of Horta da Torre (Fronteira, Portugal)
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Applied geophysicsDigital signal processingEnhancement of sharpness of 3D-GPR datasets2D Fourier interpolationGPR data densification
Oliveira, R.J... [et al.]. Increasing the Lateral Resolution of 3D-GPR Datasets through 2D-FFT Interpolation with Application to a Case Study of the Roman Villa of Horta da Torre (Fronteira, Portugal). Remote Sens. 2022, 14, 4069. [https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14164069]
Sponsorshipresearch project "Innovacion abierta e inteligente en la EUROACE" 0049_INNOACE_4_E; European Commission COMPETE 2020; Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology UIDB/04683/2020 SFRH/BSAB/143063/2018
The approach presented in this work uses an interpolation methodology to densify 3D-GPR datasets to sharpen the results obtained in GPR surveys carried out in an archaeological environment. It allows the estimation of missing data from the combined use of mathematical transforms, such as the Fourier and curvelet transforms, and predictive filters. This technique makes it possible to calculate the missing signal simply by meeting two requirements: the data in the frequency domain must be limited in a range of values and must be able to be represented by a distribution of Fourier coefficients (verified conditions). The INT-FFT algorithm uses an open-access routine (Suinterp, Seismic Unix) to interpolate the GPR B-scans based on seismic trace interpolation. This process uses automatic event identification routines by calculating spatial derivatives to identify discontinuities in space by detecting very subtle changes in the signal, thus allowing for more efficient interpolation without artifacts or signal deterioration. We successfully tested the approach using GPR datasets from the Roman villa of Horta da Torre (Fronteira, Portugal). The results showed an increase in the geometric sharpness of the GPR reflectors and did not produce any numerical artifacts. The tests performed to apply the methodology to GPR-3D data allowed for assessing the interpolation efficiency, the level of estimation of missing data, and the level of information lost when we chose to increase the distance between B-scans in the acquisition stage.