Obesity and Bone Health: A Complex Relationship
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AuthorPiñar Gutiérrez, Ana; García Fontana, Cristina; García Fontana, Beatriz; Muñoz Torres, Manuel Eduardo
ObesityFractureBody compositionInflammationHealthy agingOsteoporosis
Piñar-Gutierrez, A... [et al.]. Obesity and Bone Health: A Complex Relationship. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23, 8303. [https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23158303]
SponsorshipInstituto de Salud Carlos III; European Commission CD20/00022 PI18-00803 PI21-01069 PI18-01235; European Commission; Junta de Andalucia PI-0268-2019
Recent scientific evidence has shown an increased risk of fractures in patients with obesity, especially in those with a higher visceral adipose tissue content. This contradicts the old paradigm that obese patients were more protected than those with normal weight. Specifically, in older subjects in whom there is a redistribution of fat from subcutaneous adipose tissue to visceral adipose tissue and an infiltration of other tissues such as muscle with the consequent sarcopenia, obesity can accentuate the changes characteristic of this age group that predisposes to a greater risk of falls and fractures. Other factors that determine a greater risk in older subjects with obesity are chronic proinflammatory status, altered adipokine secretion, vitamin D deficiency, insulin resistance and reduced mobility. On the other hand, diagnostic tests may be influenced by obesity and its comorbidities as well as by body composition, and risk scales may underestimate the risk of fractures in these patients. Weight loss with physical activity programs and cessation of high-fat diets may reduce the risk. Finally, more research is needed on the efficacy of anti-osteoporotic treatments in obese patients.