Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Optimism According to Gender and Social Context (Urban vs. Rural)
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ContextEmotional developmentEmotional intelligenceOptimism
Molero, David... [et al.] 2022. Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Optimism According to Gender and Social Context (Urban vs. Rural). Social Sciences 11: 268. [https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11070268]
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of Emotional Intelligence on optimistic-pessimistic attitudes in a sample of 177 people from the Autonomous Community of Andalusia (Spain). The sample consisted of 102 women (57.60%) and 75 men (42.40%), who live in different localities depending on the number of residents (urban and rural context). The instruments used in the study were: The Life Orientation Test Revised (LOT-R), Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQi-C), and Wong-Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS-S). The results indicated that Emotional Intelligence was positively related to optimism and negatively related to pessimism (p < 0.01). In addition, pessimism was found to be significantly related to the rural context, but not to the urban context. The multigroup Structural Equations model was developed for the gender variable, and it had good structural validity (chi(2) = 96.485; RMSEA = 0.056; GFI = 0.901; CFI = 0.900; IFI = 0.907), which was greater for the female gender. The practical consequences of this study help to understand the usefulness of EQ on optimism-pessimism as an attribute between urban vs. rural areas and the effect of living in socio-culturally different environments.