Widespread resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides in Mus musculus domesticus in the city of Barcelona
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AuthorRuiz-López, María José; Barahona, Laura; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Pepió, Marta; Valsecchi, Andrea; Peracho, Victor; Figuerola, Jordi; Montalvo, Tomás
Adaptive introgressionBrodifacoumBromadiolonePest controlResistanceVkorc1 gene
Ruiz-López MJ, Barahona L, Martínez-de la Puente J, Pepió M, Valsecchi A, Peracho V, Figuerola J, Montalvo T. 2022. Widespread resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides in Mus musculus domesticus in the city of Barcelona. Sci Total Environ 845: 157192.
Control of rodent populations is a big challenge because of the rapid evolution of resistance to commonly used rodenticides and the collateral negative impacts that these products may have on biodiversity. Second-generation anticoagulants are very efficient but different single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Vkorc1 genemay confer resistance in rodents. Wesequenced exons 1, 2 and 3 of the Vkorc1 gene from111 mice (Musmusculus domesticus) captured across the city of Barcelona and found SNPs associated with resistance to first- and second-generation anticoagulants in all of them. Althoughmost of the SNPs were associated with resistance to bromadiolone, we also found SNPs associated with resistance to brodifacoum. Out of all the individuals analyzed, 94.59 % carried mutations associated to introgression events with Mus spretus, a sympatric rodent species. Currently most of the chemical products for rodent control commercialized in the area are based on bromadiolone, although recent public control campaigns have already shifted to other products. Thus, the widespread occurrence of resistant mice to bromadiolone represents a challenge for rodent control in Barcelona and may increase the risk of secondary poisoning of animals preying on this species. Public health managers, pest control companies and citizens should be aware that the use of bromadiolone based products is ineffective and represents a risk for the environment, including human and animal health.