Food made us human: Recent genetic variability and its relevance to the current distribution of macronutrients
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Human evolutionMutationsBrain developmentFeedingMacronutrientsDietary trends
Marta Palma-Morales... [et al.]. Food made us human: Recent genetic variability and its relevance to the current distribution of macronutrients, Nutrition, Volume 101, 2022, 111702, ISSN 0899-9007, [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2022.111702]
Numerous dietary strategies are currently used for the prevention of metabolic diseases and for weight loss. Some of the strategies that are used do not have an appropriate physiological-nutritional basis and do not take into account the genetic changes that have occurred recently. Thus, in certain cases, they can be harmful to human health. This review aims to explain the genetic mutations that have occurred during human evolution from the first hominids to Homo sapiens and to explain how they have influenced the way we feed ourselves. Some mutations favored brain development and others are related to the digestion of nutrients such as lactose and starch. The influence of the domestication of food and the practice of cooking on human nutrition is also explained. In addition, this review intends to justify the current recommendations on the caloric distribution of macronutrients based on the important influence of genetic changes and adaptations that have occurred in our species.