Nitro-Oleic Acid-Mediated Nitroalkylation Modulates the Antioxidant Function of Cytosolic Peroxiredoxin Tsa1 during Heat Stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
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Aranda-Caño, L... [et al.]. Nitro-Oleic Acid-Mediated Nitroalkylation Modulates the Antioxidant Function of Cytosolic Peroxiredoxin Tsa1 during Heat Stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Antioxidants 2022, 11, 972. [https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11050972]
SponsorshipERDF - Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness PGC2018-096405-B-I00; Junta de Andalucia BIO286 PY20_01002; I+D+I project within the framework Programme of FEDER Andalucia 2014-2020 1380901; University of Jaen R.02/10/2020 R.01/01/2022
Heat stress is one of the abiotic stresses that leads to oxidative stress. To protect themselves, yeast cells activate the antioxidant response, in which cytosolic peroxiredoxin Tsa1 plays an important role in hydrogen peroxide removal. Concomitantly, the activation of the heat shock response (HSR) is also triggered. Nitro-fatty acids are signaling molecules generated by the interaction of reactive nitrogen species with unsaturated fatty acids. These molecules have been detected in animals and plants. They exert their signaling function mainly through a post-translational modification called nitroalkylation. In addition, these molecules are closely related to the induction of the HSR. In this work, the endogenous presence of nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is identified for the first time by LC-MS/MS. Both hydrogen peroxide levels and Tsa1 activity increased after heat stress with no change in protein content. The nitroalkylation of recombinant Tsa1 with NO2-OA was also observed. It is important to point out that cysteine 47 (peroxidatic) and cysteine 171 (resolving) are the main residues responsible for protein activity. Moreover, the in vivo nitroalkylation of Tsa1 peroxidatic cysteine disappeared during heat stress as the hydrogen peroxide generated in this situation caused the rupture of the NO2-OA binding to the protein and, thus, restored Tsa1 activity. Finally, the amino acid targets susceptible to nitroalkylation and the modulatory effect of this PTM on the enzymatic activity of Tsa1 are also shown in vitro and in vivo. This mechanism of response was faster than that involving the induction of genes and the synthesis of new proteins and could be considered as a key element in the fine-tuning regulation of defence mechanisms against oxidative stress in yeast.