The influence of using wet cellulose poultice on nanolime consolidation treatments applied on a limestone
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ConsolidantCarbonate stoneNanolimeStone deteriorationPhysical propertyIsopropanolPoultice
J.S. Pozo-Antonio et al. The influence of using wet cellulose poultice on nanolime consolidation treatments applied on a limestone. Construction and Building Materials 337 (2022) 127615 [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2022.127615]
SponsorshipMinistry of Science and Innovation, Government of Spain through grant number RYC2020- 028902-I.; European Commission on the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions (MSCA-IF) from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 on research and innovation, grant agreement N. 893762 (NANOMORT); Funding for open access charge was provided by Universidade de Vigo/CISUG
Consolidation treatment with nanolime is a common conservation intervention which needs more research to enhance penetration and mechanical properties while also minimizing the undesired white veil on the surface which significantly alters the surface appearance. In this light, the application of a cellulose poultice soaked in distilled water over the treated surface with nanolime tries to prevent the formation of white hazes and to favour nanolime carbonation and penetration in the pore structure. However, the real influence of this practice on the consolidation effectiveness has never been studied yet and is not yet well understood. In order to provide more insights about its most suitable application method, in this study, we investigated the effectiveness of a wet cellulose poultice for two different nanolime consolidation treatments on a weathered limestone. Nanolime has been synthetized by anion exchange processes and dispersed in two mediums: i) water and ii) 50% v/v of water and alcohol. The influence of the poultice on the penetration and aesthetic properties has been studied by drilling resistance measurement, ultrasounds test, stereomicroscopy, measurements of roughness and static contact angle, spectrophotometry and scanning electron microscopy (superficial and cross sectioned samples). Additionally, consolidation effectiveness has been evaluated through the changes in apparent density, open porosity, porosity network in the outer 5 mm of the surface by mercury intrusion porosimetry and surface cohesion by the peeling test. Results show that, contrary to what is usually assumed, samples where a wet cellulose poultice was applied after the consolidant reached the lowest penetration levels and retained lower dry matter in comparison to their counterparts without poultice. A consolidation treatment with nanolime is more complex that it is generally considered, and the application of poultices is not always enhancing consolidation level; the most suitable application procedure must be chosen with regards to the nanolime and substrate specific characteristics.