Preventing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus by Improving Healthy Diet and/or Physical Activity during Pregnancy: An Umbrella Review
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AuthorKouiti, Malak; Hernández-Muñiz, Cristian; Youlyouz-Marfak, Ibtissam; Salcedo Bellido, Inmaculada; Mozas Moreno, Juan; Jiménez Moleón, José Juan
Gestational diabetes mellitusDietary interventionPhysical activity interventionRandomized controlled clinical trialsExperimental studiesSystematic reviewMeta-analysis
Kouiti, M.; Hernández-Muñiz, C.; Youlyouz-Marfak, I.; Salcedo-Bellido, I.; Mozas-Moreno, J.; Jiménez-Moleón, J.J. Preventing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus by Improving Healthy Diet and/or Physical Activity during Pregnancy: An Umbrella Review. Nutrients 2022, 14, 2066. [https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14102066]
Several epidemiological studies have analyzed the effects of lifestyle modification on reducing the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM); however, their results remain inconsistent. This umbrella review aims to evaluate the effects of diet and/or physical activity interventions during pregnancy on preventing GDM. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials reporting preventive effects of diet and/or physical activity in reducing the incidence of GDM were included from PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Cochrane library. Two authors independently assessed the overlapping and quality of the 35 selected reviews using AMSTAR 2. The results, although variable, tend to defend the protective role of diet and physical activity interventions separately and independently of each other in the prevention of GDM. However, the results for the combined interventions show a possible protective effect; however, it is not entirely clear because most of the analyzed meta-analyses tend to approach 1, and heterogeneity cannot be ruled out. Establishing conclusions about the most efficient type of intervention and a dose–effect relationship was not feasible given the low quality of systematic reviews (83% low to critically low) and the variability in reporting interventions. Therefore, more studies with better quality and definition of the interventions are required. The protocol was previously registered in PROSPERO as CRD42021237895.