Significance of Serum-Plasma Leptin Profile during Pregnancy in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
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Gestational diabetes mellitusLeptinPlasma/serumMaterno-fetal outcomesSystematic reviewMeta-analysis
Roca-Rodríguez, M.d.M... [et al.]. Significance of Serum-Plasma Leptin Profile during Pregnancy in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11, 2433. [https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092433]
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) represents a stage of subclinical inflammation and a risk factor for subsequent future type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease development. Leptin has been related with vascular and metabolic changes in GDM with heterogeneous and contradictory results with respect to their possible involvement in maternal, perinatal, and future complications. Our objective is to evaluate current evidence on the role of leptin in maternal and perinatal complications in women with GDM. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Scopus databases were searched. We evaluated the studies’ quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Meta-analyses were conducted, and heterogeneity and publication bias were examined. Thirty-nine relevant studies were finally included, recruiting 2255 GDM and 3846 control pregnant women. Leptin levels were significantly higher in GDM participants than in controls (SMD = 0.57, 95%CI = 0.19 to 0.94; p < 0.001). Subgroup meta-analysis did not evidence significant differences in leptin in the different trimesters of pregnancy. Meta-regression showed a positive significant relationship for HOMA in the GDM group (p = 0.05). According to these results, it seems that high levels of leptin can be used as predictive markers in GDM.