Periodontitis and Other Risk Factors Related to Myocardial Infarction and Its Follow-Up
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Chronic periodontitisMyocardial infarctionRisk factorsExerciseEnergy intakeMayor cardiovascular adverse eventsLeft ventricular ejection fraction
Seoane, T... [et al.]. Periodontitis and Other Risk Factors Related to Myocardial Infarction and Its Follow-Up. J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11, 2618. [https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092618]
SponsorshipJunta de Andalucia
The main issue in the prevention of myocardial infarction (MI) is to reduce risk factors. Periodontal disease is related to cardiovascular disease and both share risk factors. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether periodontitis can be considered a risk factor for MI and common risk factors in a case–control study and in a prospective follow-up study in patients with MI. The test group (MIG) was made up of 144 males who had MI in the previous 48 h. The control group (CG) was composed of 138 males without MI. Both groups were subdivided according to the presence or absence of stage III and IV of periodontitis. General data; Mediterranean diet and physical activity screening; periodontal data; and biochemical, microbiological and cardiological parameters were recorded. ANOVA, Mann–Whitney U and Kruskal–Wallis statistical tests and binary logistic regression analysis were applied. No differences in anthropometric variables were observed between the four groups. The average weekly exercise hours have a higher value in CG without periodontitis. The number of leukocytes was higher in MIG, the number of monocytes was higher in CG and the number of teeth was lower in MIG with periodontitis. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was higher in CG. Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia were higher in CG with periodontitis and in MIG with and without periodontitis. At follow-up, the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) data were better in the non-periodontitis group: 15 patients had Mayor Cardiovascular Adverse Events (MACE), 13 of them had periodontitis and 2 did not show periodontitis. Periodontitis, exercise, diet and smoking are risk factors related to MI. MACE presented in the ‘MI follow-up’ shows periodontitis, weight, exercise hours and dyslipidemia as risk factors. LVEF follow-up values are preserved in patients without periodontitis. Our data suggest that periodontitis can be considered a risk factor for MI and MACE in the studied population.