Association between Dietary Diversity and All-Cause Mortality: A Multivariable Model in a Mediterranean Population with 18 Years of Follow-Up
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Dietary diversity scoreMortalityCardiovascular diseaseCancer
Torres-Collado, L... [et al.]. Association between Dietary Diversity and All-Cause Mortality: A Multivariable Model in a Mediterranean Population with 18 Years of Follow-Up. Nutrients 2022, 14, 1583. [https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14081583]
SponsorshipDireccion General de Salud Publica Generalitat Valenciana; European Commission; General Electric AICO/2021/347; Instituto de Salud Carlos III FIS 00/0985 Instituto de Salud Carlos III European Commission European Commission FIS PI13/00654
We evaluated the relationship between the dietary diversity score (DDS) and all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality in an adult Mediterranean population. We analyzed the data of 1540 participants from the Valencia Nutrition Survey. The DDS was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire and was categorized into quartiles (Q), where the first quartile indicates the lowest dietary diversity. Deaths were ascertained during an 18-year follow-up period. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). There were 403 deaths during the follow-up period (40% due to CVD). An inverse association was observed between the DDS and all-cause and CVD mortality. Compared with participants in the lowest DDS quartile (Q1), participants in the highest DDS quartile (Q4) showed 32% and 45% less risk of death for all-cause and CVD mortality, in sex- and age-adjusted models, respectively. Regarding the food groups in the DDS, an inverse association was identified between total vegetable consumption diversity and all-cause and CVD mortality in the highest quartiles, (Q3 vs. Q1, HR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.50, 0.99) and (Q4 vs. Q1, HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.30, 0.91), respectively. This study suggests that a higher diversity in food intake, particularly in vegetables, may be associated with a lower risk of all-cause and CVD mortality. This association should be further investigated in other wider populations.