Insomnia Symptoms, Sleep Hygiene, Mental Health, and Academic Performance in Spanish University Students: A Cross-Sectional Study
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AuthorCarrión Pantoja, Sara; Prados García, Germán; Expósito Ruiz, Manuela; Fernández Puerta, Laura
InsomniaSleep hygieneAcademic performanceMental healthUniversity students
Carrión-Pantoja, S... [et al.]. Insomnia Symptoms, Sleep Hygiene, Mental Health, and Academic Performance in Spanish University Students: A Cross-Sectional Study. J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11, 1989. [https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11071989]
Background: Insomnia has been associated with decreased academic performance and unhealthy behaviors in university students. Although many studies have analyzed sleep phenomenology among this population, only few have focused on insomnia and its related variables. In addition, such studies do not always include a clinical interview or a specific and validated instrument for measuring insomnia. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of insomnia symptoms and the relationship between insomnia and health habits, mental health, and academic performance in a large university student sample. Methods: Five hundred and eighty-two students were recruited from the University of Granada, Spain. Data were collected through an online survey with questions on sociodemographic and academic data and health habits as well as the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Insomnia Severity Index, Sleep Hygiene Index, and Sleepiness, Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales. A multiple regression analysis explored the relationship between academic performance, health habits, mood state, and insomnia symptoms. Results: The prevalence of students with symptoms of insomnia was high (39.7%). A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that depression, sleep hygiene, stress and anxiety were significant predictors of insomnia symptoms. Multivariate analyses revealed that subjective insomnia symptoms, sleep efficiency, and depression were significantly correlated with academic performance in a dependent way. Conclusions: In university students, anxiety, stress, and poor sleep hygiene are risk factors for insomnia, which plays an important role in academic performance. Promoting sleep and mental health could be a potentially effective way to improve their academic performance.