A critical analysis of research methods and experimental models to study irrigants and irrigation systems
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John Wiley & Sons
BiofilmDebrisExtrusionIrrigationPenetrationPulp tissueSmear layer
Boutsioukis, C... [et al.] (2022) A critical analysis of research methods and experimental models to study irrigants and irrigation systems. International Endodontic Journal, 00, 1– 35. Available from: [https://doi.org/10.1111/iej.13710]
Irrigation plays an essential role in root canal treatment. The purpose of this narrative review was to critically appraise the experimental methods and models used to study irrigants and irrigation systems and to provide directions for future research. Studies on the antimicrobial effect of irrigants should use mature multispecies biofilms grown on dentine or inside root canals and should combine at least two complementary evaluation methods. Dissolution of pulp tissue remnants should be examined in the presence of dentine and, preferably, inside human root canals. Micro-computed tomography is currently the method of choice for the assessment of accumulated dentine debris and their removal. A combination of experiments in transparent root canals and numerical modeling is needed to address irrigant penetration. Finally, models to evaluate irrigant extrusion through the apical foramen should simulate the periapical tissues and provide quantitative data on the amount of extruded irrigant. Mimicking the in vivo conditions as close as possible and standardization of the specimens and experimental protocols are universal requirements irrespective of the surrogate endpoint studied. Obsolete and unrealistic models must be abandoned in favour of more appropriate and valid ones that have more direct application and translation to clinical Endodontics.