Protective Effect of Melatonin Administration against SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Systematic Review
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AutorMolina Carballo, Antonio; Palacios López, Rafael Manuel; Jerez Calero, Antonio Emilio; Augustin Morales, María Carmen; Agil Abdalla, Mhmad Ahmad; Muñoz Hoyos, Antonio
Molina-Carballo, A... [et al.]. Protective Effect of Melatonin Administration against SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Systematic Review. Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2022, 44, 31–45. [https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb44010003]
PatrocinadorAndalusian Government: CTS-190
Introduction: according to the World Health Organization (WHO), COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, responsible for an increasing number of cases and deaths. From a preventive and therapeutic point of view, there are two concerns that affect institutions and healthcare professionals: global immunization (which is still far from being achieved) and the availability of drugs capable of preventing its consequences in the infected patient. In this sense, the role that melatonin can play is has been assessed in the recent literature. Justification and Objectives: the serious health, social and economic consequences of COVID-19 have forced an urgent search for preventive methods, such as vaccines, among others, and therapeutic methods that could be alternatives to the drugs currently used. In this sense, it must be accepted that one of the most recommended has been the administration of melatonin. The present study proposes to carry out a systematic review of its possible role in the treatment and/or prevention of COVID-19. Material and methods: a systematic review of the literature related to the prevention of COVID-19 through the administration of melatonin was carried out, following the sequence proposed by the Prisma Declaration regarding the identification and selection of documents, using the specialized health databases Trip Medical Database, Cochrane Library, PubMed, Medline Plus, BVS, Cuiden and generic databases such as Dialnet, Web of Science and Google Scholar for their retrieval. Appropriate inclusion and exclusion criteria are described for the articles assessed. The main limitation of the study has been the scarcity of works and the lack of defining a specific protocol in terms of dosage and administration schedule. Results: once the selection process was completed, and after an in-depth critical analysis, 197 papers were selected, and 40 of them were finally used. The most relevant results were: (1) melatonin prevents SARS-CoV-2 infection, (2) although much remains to be clarified, at high doses, it seems to have a coadjuvant therapeutic effect in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection and (3) melatonin is effective against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Discussion: until group immunization is achieved in the population, it seems clear that we must continue to treat patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and, in the absence of a specific and effective antiviral therapy, it is advisable to continue researching and providing drugs that demonstrate validity based on the scientific evidence. In this regard, we believe that the available studies recommend the administration of melatonin for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, sleep-inducing, CD147, Mpro, p65 and MMP9 protein suppressing, nephrotoxicity-reducing and highly effective and safe effects. Conclusions: (1) melatonin has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and Mpro and MMP9 protein-inhibitory activity. (2) It has been shown to have a wide margin of safety. (3) The contributions reviewed make it an effective therapeutic alternative in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. (4) Further clinical trials are recommended to clearly define the administration protocol.