Recommendations on Weight Loss and Healthy Lifestyle in Prostate Cancer Clinical Guidelines: A Systematic Review
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Clinical guidelinesConsensus statementProstate cancerObesityMortalityBody weight
Rivera-Izquierdo, M.; Martínez-Ruiz, V.; Jiménez-Moleón, J.J. Recommendations on Weight Loss and Healthy Lifestyle in Prostate Cancer Clinical Guidelines: A Systematic Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 1452. [https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031452]
Obesity is associated with negative prostate cancer outcomes (e.g., specific mortality, all-cause mortality, biochemical recurrence, etc.), according to the current scientific literature. Nevertheless, recommendations on weight loss and healthy lifestyles are poorly covered by clinicians. We aimed at identifying these recommendations from clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for prostate cancer. We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, guideline databases and online sources for CPGs updated from January 2015 to August 2021. The searches were independently conducted by two researchers, without language restrictions. A total of 97 prostate cancer guidelines, including 84 (86.6%) CPGs and 13 (13.4%) consensus statements, were included. Recommendations on reaching and maintaining a healthy weight or healthy lifestyles were provided by 7 (7.2%) and 13 (13.4%) documents, respectively. No differences regarding recommendations were found by type of document, year of publication or country. Our results suggest that professional societies and governments should update prostate cancer guidelines to include these recommendations for improving prostate cancer prognosis.