The Impact of Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics during Pregnancy or Lactation on the Intestinal Microbiota of Children Born by Cesarean Section: A Systematic Review
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AuthorMartín Peláez, Sandra; Cano Ibáñez, Naomi; Pinto Gallardo, Miguel; Amezcua Prieto, María Del Carmen
ProbioticsPrebioticsSynbioticsGut microbiotaPregnancyCesarean section
Martín-Peláez, S.; Cano-Ibáñez, N.; Pinto-Gallardo, M.; Amezcua-Prieto, C. The Impact of Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics during Pregnancy or Lactation on the Intestinal Microbiota of Children Born by Cesarean Section: A Systematic Review. Nutrients 2022, 14, 341. [https://doi.org/10.3390/ nu14020341]
SponsorshipUniversidad de Granada
The gut microbiota is a key factor in the correct development of the gastrointestinal immune system. Studies have found differences between the gut microbiota of newborns delivered by cesarean section compared to those vaginally delivered. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of ingestion of probiotics, prebiotics, or synbiotics during pregnancy and/or lactation on the development of the gut microbiota of the C-section newborns. We selected experimental studies in online databases from their inception to October 2021. Of the 83 records screened, 12 met the inclusion criteria. The probiotics used belonged to the genera Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Propionibacterium, and Streptococcus, or a combination of those, with dosages varying between 2 × 106 and 9 × 1011 CFU per day, and were consumed during pregnancy and/or lactation. Probiotic strains were combined with galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharides, or bovine milk-derived oligosaccharides in the synbiotic formulas. Probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotic interventions led to beneficial gut microbiota in cesarean-delivered newborns, closer to that in vaginally delivered newborns, especially regarding Bifidobacterium colonization. This effect was more evident in breastfed infants. The studies indicate that this beneficial effect is achieved when the interventions begin soon after birth, especially the restoration of bifidobacterial population. Changes in the infant microbial ecosystem due to the interventions seem to continue after the end of the intervention in most of the studies. More interventional studies are needed to elucidate the optimal synbiotic combinations and the most effective strains and doses for achieving the optimal gut microbiota colonization of C-section newborns.