Historical exposure to persistent organic pollutants and cardiovascular disease: A 15-year longitudinal analysis focused on pharmaceutical consumption in primary care
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AuthorPérez Carrascosa, Francisco Miguel; Gómez Peña, Celia; Echeverría, Ruth; Jiménez Moleón, José Juan; Melchor Rodríguez, Juan Manuel; García Ruiz, Antonio; Navarro Espigares, José Luis; Cabeza Barrera, José; Martín-Olmedo, Piedad; Ortigosa-García, Juan Carlos; Arrebola Moreno, Juan Pedro
Organochlorine pesticidesPolychlorinated biphenylsPersistent organic pollutantsCardiovascular diseasePharmaceutical consumptionHealth expenditure
F. Miguel Pérez-Carrascosa et al. Historical exposure to persistent organic pollutants and cardiovascular disease: A 15-year longitudinal analysis focused on pharmaceutical consumption in primary care. Environment International 156 (2021) 106734 [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106734]
SponsorshipCIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública; Santa Ana and San Cecilio Hospitals RYC-2016-20155; European Commission; Instituto de Salud Carlos III PI16/01858, PI18/01573, PI20/01568 ISCIII Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad, Gobierno de España; European Regional Development Fund; Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad, Gobierno de España
Background Despite restrictions on their production and use, most of the population is still exposed to Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). These chemicals are thought to contribute to the aetiology of highly prevalent chronic conditions, such as cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), although current evidences are still controversial. Objectives To explore the potential contribution of historical POP exposure to 15-year pharmaceutical consumption in relation to CVD. Methods This study is framed within GraMo adult cohort. Participants (n = 387) were recruited in two hospitals in Granada province, Southern Spain (2003–2004). Historical exposure to 5 OCPs and 3 non-dioxine-like PCBs was estimated by analysing adipose tissue concentrations at recruitment. Pharmaceutical consumption from recruitment until year 2017 was quantified by reviewing dispensation databases. Average consumption increase (ACI) in CVD medication was calculated by subtracting average consumption in 2002 to the average yearly consumption during follow-up. ACI was expressed as Defined Daily Dose (DDD)/year units. Data analyses were carried out using a multivariable multinomial logistic regression and weighted quantile sum regression (WQS), with ACI categorized in quartiles (Q) as the dependent variable. Results Concentrations of most pollutants showed a positive trend with the quartiles of ACI. Particularly, PCB-153 showed increasing and statistically significant odds ratios (ORs) for Q2 (OR: 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07–1.52), Q3 (OR: 1.49, 95 %CI: 1.17–1.88) and Q4 (OR: 1.42, 95 %CI: 1.13–1.78) vs Q1. Similarly, beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) also showed increasing ORs, that reached statistical significance in Q4 (OR: 1.36, 95 %CI: 1.06–1.74) vs Q1. These findings were corroborated by WQS analyses, that revealed a significant mixture effect, predominantly accounted for by PCB-153 and β-HCH. Discussion Our results suggest that long-term POP exposure might represent a modifiable risk factor for CVD. These findings are relevant for public health campaigns and management, since pharmaceutical consumption is considered an indicator of both morbidity and health expenditure.