Short- and Long-Term Implications of Human Milk Microbiota on Maternal and Child Health
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AuthorGarcía Ricobaraza, María; García Santos, José Antonio; Escudero Marín, Mireia; Diéguez Castillo, Estefanía; Cerdó, Tomás; Campoy Folgoso, Cristina
Human milkMicrobiotaHealth programmingProbiotics
García-Ricobaraza, M.; García-Santos, J.A.; Escudero-Marín, M.; Diéguez, E.; Cerdó, T.; Campoy, C. Short- and Long-Term Implications of Human Milk Microbiota on Maternal and Child Health. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 11866. [https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222111866]
Human milk (HM) is considered the most complete food for infants as its nutritional composition is specifically designed to meet infant nutritional requirements during early life. HM also provides numerous biologically active components, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, milk fat globules, IgA, gangliosides or polyamines, among others; in addition, HM has a "bifidogenic effect ", a prebiotic effect, as a result of the low concentration of proteins and phosphates, as well as the presence of lactoferrin, lactose, nucleotides and oligosaccharides. Recently, has been a growing interest in HM as a potential source of probiotics and commensal bacteria to the infant gut, which might, in turn, influence both the gut colonization and maturation of infant immune system. Our review aims to address practical approaches to the detection of microbial communities in human breast milk samples, delving into their origin, composition and functions. Furthermore, we will summarize the current knowledge of how HM microbiota dysbiosis acts as a short- and long-term predictor of maternal and infant health. Finally, we also provide a critical view of the role of breast milk-related bacteria as a novel probiotic strategy in the prevention and treatment of maternal and offspring diseases.