Analysis of Urban Heat Island and Heat Waves Using Sentinel‑3 Images: a Study of Andalusian Cities in Spain
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AuthorHidalgo García, David
Surface Urban Heat IslandHeat wavesSentinel-3 imageryLand surface temperatureHeat resilience and urban resilience
García, D.H. Analysis of Urban Heat Island and Heat Waves Using Sentinel-3 Images: a Study of Andalusian Cities in Spain. Earth Syst Environ (2021). [https://doi.org/10.1007/s41748-021-00268-9]
SponsorshipUniversidad de Granada/CBUA
At present, understanding the synergies between the Surface Urban Heat Island (SUHI) phenomenon and extreme climatic events entailing high mortality, i.e., heat waves, is a great challenge that must be faced to improve the quality of life in urban zones. The implementation of new mitigation and resilience measures in cities would serve to lessen the effects of heat waves and the economic cost they entail. In this research, the Land Surface Temperature (LST) and the SUHI were determined through Sentinel-3A and 3B images of the eight capitals of Andalusia (southern Spain) during the months of July and August of years 2019 and 2020. The objective was to determine possible synergies or interaction between the LST and SUHI, as well as between SUHI and heat waves, in a region classified as highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. For each Andalusian city, the atmospheric variables of ambient temperature, solar radiation, wind speed and direction were obtained from stations of the Spanish State Meteorological Agency (AEMET); the data were quantified and classified both in periods of normal environmental conditions and during heat waves. By means of Data Panel statistical analysis, the multivariate relationships were derived, determining which ones statistically influence the SUHI during heat wave periods. The results indicate that the LST and the mean SUHI obtained are statistically interacted and intensify under heat wave conditions. The greatest increases in daytime temperatures were seen for Sentinel-3A in cities by the coast (LST = 3.90 °C, SUHI = 1.44 °C) and for Sentinel-3B in cities located inland (LST = 2.85 °C, SUHI = 0.52 °C). The existence of statistically significant positive relationships above 99% (p < 0.000) between the SUHI and solar radiation, and between the SUHI and the direction of the wind, intensified in periods of heat wave, could be verified. An increase in the urban area affected by the SUHI under heat wave conditions is reported.