Mechanisms Involved in the Relationship between Vitamin D and Insulin Resistance: Impact on Clinical Practice
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AuthorContreras Bolívar, Victoria; García Fontana, Beatriz; García Fontana, Cristina; Muñoz Torres, Manuel Eduardo
Vitamin D25-hydroxyvitamin D or calcidiol (25(OH)D)Calcitriol (1,25(OH)2D)Vitamin D receptor (VDR)25-hydroxyvitamin D-1alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1)Insulin resistanceHomeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) type 2 diabetesObesityMetabolic syndrome (MS)Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
Contreras-Bolívar, V... [et al.]. Mechanisms Involved in the Relationship between Vitamin D and Insulin Resistance: Impact on Clinical Practice. Nutrients 2021, 13, 3491. [https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103491]
SponsorshipInstitute of Health Carlos III grants PI18-00803 PI18-01235; European Commission Junta de Andalucia PI-0268-2019; Instituto de Salud Carlos III RH-0141-2020 CD20/00022
Recent evidence has revealed anti-inflammatory properties of vitamin D as well as extraskeletal activity. In this context, vitamin D seems to be involved in infections, autoimmune diseases, cardiometabolic diseases, and cancer development. In recent years, the relationship between vitamin D and insulin resistance has been a topic of growing interest. Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels appear to be associated with most of the insulin resistance disorders described to date. In fact, vitamin D deficiency may be one of the factors accelerating the development of insulin resistance. Vitamin D deficiency is a common problem in the population and may be associated with the pathogenesis of diseases related to insulin resistance, such as obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome (MS) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). An important question is the identification of 25(OH)D levels capable of generating an effect on insulin resistance, glucose metabolism and to decrease the risk of developing insulin resistance related disorders. The benefits of 25(OH)D supplementation/repletion on bone health are well known, and although there is a biological plausibility linking the status of vitamin D and insulin resistance supported by basic and clinical research findings, well-designed randomized clinical trials as well as basic research are necessary to know the molecular pathways involved in this association.