Insights into Growth Factors in Liver Carcinogenesis and Regeneration: An Ongoing Debate on Minimizing Cancer Recurrence after Liver Resection
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AuthorÁlvarez Mercado, Ana Isabel
Liver cancerLiver resectionGrowth factorsRegenerationHepatocyte growth factorInsulin-like growth factor-1Epidermal growth factor
Álvarez-Mercado, A.I... [et al.]. Insights into Growth Factors in Liver Carcinogenesis and Regeneration: An Ongoing Debate on Minimizing Cancer Recurrence after Liver Resection. Biomedicines 2021, 9, 1158. [https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9091158]
SponsorshipMinisterio de Ciencia, Innovacion y Universidades Madrid, Spain RTI2018-095114-B-I00; European Union (Fondos FEDER, "una manera de hacer Europa"); General Electric; Secretaria d' Universitats I Recerca del Departament d' Economia I Coneixement Barcelona, Spain 2017_SGR_551; COST action Programs CA17103 CA17112 CA17121 CA17126; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACyT); Fondo Sectorial de Investigacion para la Educacion, Mexico 257743; FCT (Fundacio Catalana de Trasplantament), Spain
Hepatocellular carcinoma has become a leading cause of cancer-associated mortality throughout the world, and is of great concern. Currently used chemotherapeutic drugs in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma lead to severe side effects, thus underscoring the need for further research to develop novel and safer therapies. Liver resection in cancer patients is routinely performed. After partial resection, liver regeneration is a perfectly calibrated response apparently sensed by the body’s required liver function. This process hinges on the effect of several growth factors, among other molecules. However, dysregulation of growth factor signals also leads to growth signaling autonomy and tumor progression, so control of growth factor expression may prevent tumor progression. This review describes the role of some of the main growth factors whose dysregulation promotes liver tumor progression, and are also key in regenerating the remaining liver following resection. We herein summarize and discuss studies focused on partial hepatectomy and liver carcinogenesis, referring to hepatocyte growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, and epidermal growth factor, as well as their suitability as targets in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Finally, and given that drugs remain one of the mainstay treatment options in liver carcinogenesis, we have reviewed the current pharmacological approaches approved for clinical use or research targeting these factors.
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