Generation of a novel model of bioengineered human oral mucosa with increased vascularization potential
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AuthorBlanco Elices, Cristina; Chato Astrain, Jesús; Oyonarte Gómez, Salvador; Bermejo Casares, Fabiola; España López, Antonio; Fernández Valadés, Ricardo; Sánchez Quevedo, María Del Carmen; Alaminos Mingorance, Miguel; Martín Piedra, Miguel Ángel; Garzón Bello, Ingrid Johanna
Mesenchymal stem cellsOral mucosaTissue engineeringVascularization
Blanco-Elices, C... [et al.]. Generation of a novel model of bioengineered human oral mucosa with increased vascularization potential. J Periodont Res. 2021; 00: 1– 16. [https://doi.org/10.1111/jre.12927]
SponsorshipSpanish Plan Nacional de Investigacion Cientifica, Desarrollo e Innovacion Tecnologica (I+D+I) of the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (Instituto de Salud Carlos III) FIS PI18/331 FIS PI21/00980 FIS PI18/332 ICI19/00024; Junta de Andalucia PI-0442-2019; European Commission
Objective: The aim of this study was to generate novel models of bioartificial human oral mucosa with increased vascularization potential for future use as an advanced therapies medicinal product, by using different vascular and mesenchymal stem cell sources. Background: Oral mucosa substitutes could contribute to the clinical treatment of complex diseases affecting the oral cavity. Although several models of artificial oral mucosa have been described, biointegration is a major issue that could be favored by the generation of novel substitutes with increased vascularization potential once grafted in vivo. Methods: Three types of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were obtained from adipose tissue, bone marrow, and dental pulp, and their in vitro potential was evaluated by inducing differentiation to the endothelial lineage using conditioning media. Then, 3D models of human artificial oral mucosa were generated using biocompatible fibrin-agarose biomaterials combined with human oral mucosa fibroblasts and each type of MSC before and after induction to the endothelial lineage, using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) as controls. The vascularization potential of each oral mucosa substitute was assessed in vitro and in vivo in nude mice. Results: In vitro induction of MSCs kept in culture was able to increase the expression of VEGF, CD31, and vWF endothelial markers, especially in bone marrow and dental pulp-MSCs, and numerous proteins with a role in vasculogenesis become overexpressed. Then, in vivo grafting resulted in a significant increase in blood vessels formation at the interface area between the graft and the host tissues, with significantly positive expression of VEGF, CD31, vWF, and CD34 as compared to negative controls, especially when pre-differentiated MSCs derived from bone marrow and dental pulp were used. In addition, a significantly higher number of cells committed to the endothelial lineage expressing the same endothelial markers were found within the bioartificial tissue. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the use of pre-differentiated MSCs could contribute to a rapid generation of a vascular network that may favor in vivo biointegration of bioengineered human oral mucosa substitutes.