Metalloproteinases 1 and 3 as Potential Biomarkers in Breast Cancer Development
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AuthorArgote Camacho, Angela Ximena; Olivares Urbano, María Auxiliadora; Torné Poyatos, Pablo; Ríos Arrabal, Sandra; Núñez Torres, María Isabel
Breast cancerMetalloproteinasesImmunohistochemical expressionEpithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)BiomarkersDiagnostic factorsExtracellular matrixMMPsMMP inhibitors
Argote Camacho, A.X.; González Ramírez, A.R.; Pérez Alonso, A.J.; Rejón García, J.D.; Olivares Urbano, M.A.; Torné Poyatos, P.; Ríos Arrabal, S.; Núñez, M.I. Metalloproteinases 1 and 3 as Potential Biomarkers in Breast Cancer Development. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 9012. https://doi.org/10.3390/ ijms22169012
SponsorshipFundación Progreso Salud, grant number PI-0730-2013, and by ISCIII, grant number PIE16/00045.
Breast cancer continues to be one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality globally and was the leading cause of cancer death in women in Spain in 2020. Early diagnosis is one of the most effective methods to lower the incidence and mortality rates of breast cancer. The human metalloproteinases (MMP) mainly function as proteolytic enzymes degrading the extracellular matrix and plays important roles in most steps of breast tumorigenesis. This retrospective cohort study shows the immunohistochemical expression levels of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, and MMP-9 in 154 women with breast cancer and 42 women without tumor disease. The samples of breast tissue are assessed using several tissue matrices (TMA). The percentages of staining (≤50%–>50%) and intensity levels of staining (weak, moderate, or intense) are considered. The immunohistochemical expression of the MMP-1-intensity (p = 0.043) and MMP-3 percentage (p = 0.018) and intensity, (p = 0.025) present statistically significant associations with the variable group (control–case); therefore, expression in the tumor tissue samples of these MMPs may be related to the development of breast cancer. The relationships between these MMPs and some clinicopathological factors in breast cancer are also evaluated but no correlation is found. These results suggest the use of MMP-1 and MMP-3 as potential biomarkers of breast cancer diagnosis.