Pro‑vegetarian food patterns and cardiometabolic risk in the PREDIMED‑Plus study: a cross‑sectional baseline analysis
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Dietary food patternsCardiometabolic RiskMetabolic syndromePro-vegetarian
Oncina-Cánovas, A... [et al.]. Pro-vegetarian food patterns and cardiometabolic risk in the PREDIMED-Plus study: a cross-sectional baseline analysis. Eur J Nutr (2021). [https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-021-02647-4]
Sponsorshipofficial Spanish Institutions; CIBER Fisiopatologia de la Obesidad y Nutricion (CIBEROBN); Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), through the Fondo de Investigacion para la Salud (FIS); European Commission PI13/00673 PI13/00492 PI13/00272 PI13/01123 PI13/00462 PI13/00233 PI13/02184 PI13/00728 PI13/01090 PI13/01056 PI14/01722 PI14/00636 PI14/00618 PI14/00696 PI14/01206 PI14/01919 PI14/00853 PI14/01374; The European Regional Development Fund PI14/00972 PI14/00728 PI14/01471 PI16/00473 PI16/00662 PI16/01873 PI16/01094 PI16/00501 PI16/00533 PI16/00381 PI16/00366 PI16/01522 PI16/01120 PI17/00764 PI17/01183 PI17/00855 PI17/01347 PI17/00525 PI17/01827 PI17/00532 PI17/00215; European Commission PI17/01441 PI17/00508 PI17/01732 PI17/00926 PI19/00957 PI19/00386 PI19/00309 PI19/01032 PI19/00576 PI19/00017 PI19/01226 PI19/00781 PI19/01560 PI19/01332 PI20/01802 PI20/00138 PI20/01532 PI20/00456 PI20/00339 PI20/00557 PI20/00886 PI20/01158; Especial Action Project entitled: Implementacion y evaluacion de una intervencion intensiva sobre la actividad fisica Cohorte PREDIMED-Plus grant; European Research Council (ERC); European Commission 340918; La Caixa Foundation 2013ACUP00194; Junta de Andalucia PI0458/2013 PS0358/2016 PI0137/2018; Generalitat Valenciana European Commission PROMETEO/2017/017; SEMERGEN grant
Purpose We explored the cross-sectional association between the adherence to three different provegetarian (PVG) food patterns defined as general (gPVG), healthful (hPVG) and unhealthful (uPVG), and the cardiometabolic risk in adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS) of the PREDIMED-Plus randomized intervention study. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 6439 participants of the PREDIMED-Plus randomized intervention study. The gPVG food pattern was built by positively scoring plant foods (vegetables/fruits/legumes/ grains/potatoes/nuts/olive oil) and negatively scoring, animal foods (meat and meat products/animal fats/eggs/fish and seafood/dairy products). The hPVG and uPVG were generated from the gPVG by adding four new food groups (tea and coffee/ fruit juices/sugar-sweetened beverages/sweets and desserts), splitting grains and potatoes and scoring them differently. Multivariable-adjusted robust linear regression using MM-type estimator was used to assess the association between PVG food patterns and the standardized Metabolic Syndrome score (MetS z-score), a composed index that has been previously used to ascertain the cardiometabolic risk, adjusting for potential confounders. Results A higher adherence to the gPVG and hPVG was associated with lower cardiometabolic risk in multivariable models. The regression coefficients for 5th vs. 1st quintile were − 0.16 (95% CI: − 0.33 to 0.01) for gPVG (p trend: 0.015), and − 0.23 (95% CI: − 0.41 to − 0.05) for hPVG (p trend: 0.016). In contrast, a higher adherence to the uPVG was associated with higher cardiometabolic risk, 0.21 (95% CI: 0.04 to 0.38) (p trend: 0.019). Conclusion Higher adherence to gPVG and hPVG food patterns was generally associated with lower cardiovascular risk, whereas higher adherence to uPVG was associated to higher cardiovascular risk.