Influence of the degree of adherence to the mediterranean diet and its components on cardiometabolic risk during pregnancy. The GESTAFIT project
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AuthorDe la Flor Alemany, Marta; Acosta Manzano, Pedro; Marín Jiménez, Nuria; Baena García, Laura; Aranda Ramírez, Pilar; Aparicio García-Molina, Virginia
Cardiometabolic riskDietary intakeGestationMediterranean diet
Marta Flor-Alemany... [et al.]. Influence of the degree of adherence to the mediterranean diet and its components on cardiometabolic risk during pregnancy. The GESTAFIT project, Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 31, Issue 8, 2021, Pages 2311-2318, ISSN 0939-4753, [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2021.04.019]
SponsorshipRegional Ministry of Health of the Junta de Andalucia PI-0395-2016; University of Granada, Unit of Excellence on Exercise and Health (UCEES); Spanish Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports FPU17/03715
Background and aims: Studies regarding dietary patterns and cardiometabolic risk markers during pregnancy are scarce. The aim of the present study was to analyse whether different degrees of adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) and the MD components were associated with cardiometabolic markers and a clustered cardiometabolic risk during pregnancy. Methods and results: This study comprised 119 pregnant women from the GEStation and FITness (GESTAFIT) project. Dietary habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire at the 16th and 34th gestational weeks (g.w.). The Mediterranean Diet Score was employed to assess MD adherence. The following cardiometabolic markers were assessed: pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting glucose, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). A greater MD adherence was associated with a better cardiometabolic status in cross-sectional (16th g.w. and 34th g.w.) and prospective analyses (MD adherence at the 16th g.w. and cardiometabolic markers at the 34th g.w.; SBP, DBP and HDL-C; all, p < 0.05). Participants with the highest MD adherence (Tertile 3) had a lower clustered cardiometabolic risk than those with the lowest MD adherence (Tertile 1) at the 16th and 34th g.w. (both, p < 0.05). A higher intake of fruits, vegetables and fish and a lower intake of refined cereals and red meat and subproducts were associated with a lower cardiometabolic risk during pregnancy (all, p < 0.05). Conclusion: A higher MD adherence, a greater intake of fruits, vegetables and fish and a lower intake of refined cereals and red meat and subproducts showed a cardioprotective effect throughout gestation.