Risk factors related to bacterial contamination by Enterobacteriaceae and fecal coliforms and the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in Algerian farms, slaughterhouses and butcheries: a two-year follow-up study
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FarmsAnimalsAbattoirsMeat safetyCarcassPrevalenceAlgeriaFood safety
Khireddine Ghougal... [et al.]. Risk factors related to bacterial contamination by Enterobacteriaceae and fecal coliforms and the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in Algerian farms, slaughterhouses and butcheries: a two-year follow-up study[J]. AIMS Agriculture and Food, 2021, 6(3): 768-785. doi:[10.3934/agrfood.2021046]
SponsorshipInstitut des sciences veterinaires, Universite Freres Mentouri, Constantine 1
This study was conducted to investigate first the bacterial contamination by Enterobacteriaceae, fecal coliforms and the prevalence of Salmonella spp. and second to identify the main associated risk factors in Algerian farms, slaughterhouses and butcheries during a two-years period. Thus, a cross-sectional study was performed using a simple random sampling method to target 20 farms, 10 slaughterhouses and 5 butcheries. A structured questionnaire was further used to assess hygienic status of the farms and slaughterhouses. A total of 265 samples were collected from wall, floor, litter, food, water and animals’ samples composed mainly of meat, neck skin and liver. Samples from walls and floors, from different sites were analyzed to evaluate the overall contamination and the hygiene of sites for Total viable bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae counts and Fecal coliforms counts. Furthermore, E.coli and salmonella spp. were identified in all samples. The overall contamination by sampling sites expressed as log10 CFU/g (mean ± SD) for Total Aerobic Microbial Count, Enterobacteriaceae count and fecal coliforms counts were around 4.71 ± 1.1, 4.73 ± 1.3 and 4.68 ± 1.2 respectively. The findings evidenced that the prevalence of E.coli and Salmonella spp. were 63.40% and 18.49% respectively. The highest rate of E.coli contamination was for poultry farms (70%), beef farms (64%) and butcheries (74.54%) followed by poultry meat slaughterhouses (60%) and sheep farms (48%) while beef slaughterhouses have the lowest rate of contamination (33.84%). For salmonella spp. the contamination was found to be mainly in poultry meat slaughterhouses (31.11%), butcheries (25.45%), followed by poultry farms (22%), beef farms (20%) and sheep farms (12%) while beef slaughterhouses have the lowest rate of contamination (4.61%). This study evidenced multifactor effects of microbial contamination in farms such as animal density, litter hygiene and scraping, manure storage, water and pest control, contact with other animals and decontamination process. Overall, this trial indicated a high rate of microbial contamination for which further studies are needed to determine all the potential risk factors in order to evaluate the corrective effects.