Fermentation Strategies to Improve Soil Bio-Inoculant Production and Quality
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AuthorVassileva, Maria Hristova; Gálvez Pérez, Antonia; Flor Peregrín, Elena; Bojkov Vassilev, Nikolay
BiofertilizersBiocontrolSubmerged and solid-state fermentationsImmobilized cellsMycorrhizaOptimization strategies
Vassileva, M... [et al.]. Fermentation Strategies to Improve Soil Bio-Inoculant Production and Quality. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 1254. [https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9061254]
Sponsorshipproject EXCALIBUR - European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme 817946; Junta de Andalucia-PAIDI 2020, Spain P18-HO-4279
The application of plant beneficial microorganisms has been widely accepted as an efficient alternative to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Isolation and selection of efficient microorganisms, their characterization and testing in soil-plant systems are well studied. However, the production stage and formulation of the final products are not in the focus of the research, which affects the achievement of stable and consistent results in the field. Recent analysis of the field of plant beneficial microorganisms suggests a more integrated view on soil inoculants with a special emphasis on the inoculant production process, including fermentation, formulation, processes, and additives. This mini-review describes the different groups of fermentation processes and their characteristics, bearing in mind different factors, both nutritional and operational, which affect the biomass/spores yield and microbial metabolite activity. The characteristics of the final products of fermentation process optimization strategies determine further steps of development of the microbial inoculants. Submerged liquid and solid-state fermentation processes, fed-batch operations, immobilized cell systems, and production of arbuscular mycorrhiza are presented and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Recommendations for further development of the fermentation strategies for biofertilizer production are also considered.