Gallblader carcinomas from risk factors to targeted therapy
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Archivos de Medicina Universitaria
Betancor-Fernández, Isabel. Gallblader carcinomas from risk factors to targeted therapy. AMU. 2018; 59-69
To revise the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis in gallbladder carcinomas. To revise the role of molecular pathology in this entity and its importance in therapeutic perspectives. Methods: A revision of all the articles published between 2006-2016 and indexed in PubMed containing the keywords “gallbladder”, “cancer”, “carcinoma”, “diagnosis”, “treatment”, “perspectives” and/or “targeted therapy ” was carried out. Results: The incidence of gallbladder carcinoma varies greatly depending on the geographical area [considered]. Its natural history is related to chronic inflammation and cholelithiasis is its main risk factor. The diagnosis is usually made at a late stage and, despite the treatment, it shows/has a poor prognosis. Changes in p53 and K-Ras are common. Modulation of inflammation is postulated as a therapeutic alternative. Conclusions: Gallbladder carcinoma is a neoplasm with an aggressive course. The improvement in its prognosis needs of the control of risk factors and early diagnosis supported by imaging tests. New surgical techniques and the description of new therapeutic targets also offer promising prospects.