Novel Purine Chemotypes with Activity against Plasmodium falciparum and Trypanosoma cruzi
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AuthorMartinez Peinado, Nieves; Lorente Macías, Álvaro; Molina Pineda Infantas, Ignacio Jesús; Díaz Mochón, Juan José; Pineda de las Infantas y Villatoro, María J.
Plasmodium falciparumTrypanosoma cruziPurine metabolismPurine derivativesPyrimidine analogsPhenotypic assaysCytotoxicity assay
Martinez-Peinado, N.; Lorente-Macías, Á.; García-Salguero, A.; Cortes-Serra, N.; Fenollar-Collado, Á.; Ros-Lucas, A.; Gascon, J.; Pinazo, M.-J.; Molina, I.J.; Unciti-Broceta, A.; et al. Novel Purine Chemotypes with Activity against Plasmodium falciparum and Trypanosoma cruzi. Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14, 638. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14070638
SponsorshipSAF2016-76080-R (Spanish Ministry of Economy (AEI/FEDER, UE)); PID2019-110810RB-I00 (Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation); Generalitat of Catalonia Universities and Research Department, Spain (AGAUR; 2017SGR00924); Carlos III Health Institute (ISCIII); RICET Network for Cooperative Research in Tropical Diseases (ISCIII; RD12/0018/0010); Generalitat of Catalonia Department of Health (PERIS 2016–2010 SLT008/18/00132); Spanish Ministry of Education, Culture, and Sports (FPU grant ref. 14/00818); Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation, and Universities through the “Centro de Excelencia Severo Ochoa 2019–2023” Program (CEX2018-000806-S); CERCA Program
Malaria and Chagas disease, caused by Plasmodium spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi parasites, remain important global health problems. Available treatments for those diseases present several limitations, such as lack of efficacy, toxic side effects, and drug resistance. Thus, new drugs are urgently needed. The discovery of new drugs may be benefited by considering the significant biological differences between hosts and parasites. One of the most striking differences is found in the purine metabolism, because most of the parasites are incapable of de novo purine biosynthesis. Herein, we have analyzed the in vitro anti-P. falciparum and anti-T. cruzi activity of a collection of 81 purine derivatives and pyrimidine analogs. We firstly used a primary screening at three fixed concentrations (100, 10, and 1 µM) and progressed those compounds that kept the growth of the parasites < 30% at 100 µM to dose–response assays. Then, we performed two different cytotoxicity assays on Vero cells and human HepG2 cells. Finally, compounds specifically active against T. cruzi were tested against intracellular amastigote forms. Purines 33 (IC50 = 19.19 µM) and 76 (IC50 = 18.27 µM) were the most potent against P. falciparum. On the other hand, 6D (IC50 = 3.78 µM) and 34 (IC50 = 4.24 µM) were identified as hit purines against T. cruzi amastigotes. Moreover, an in silico docking study revealed that P. falciparum and T. cruzi hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase enzymes could be the potential targets of those compounds. Our study identified two novel, purine-based chemotypes that could be further optimized to generate potent and diversified anti-parasitic drugs against both parasites.