Core-collapse supernova subtypes in luminous infrared galaxies
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Galaxies: star formationSupernovae: generalGalaxies: individual: NGC 3256Galaxies: individual: Arp 299Dust, extinction
E. Kankare et al. CCSNe in LIRGs. A&A 649, A134 (2021) [https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/202039240]
SponsorshipDOCTORADOBECAS CHILE/2017-72180113; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron and Humboldt University; EU H2020 ERC 758638; IFAE Barcelona; IPAC; Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias; KICP; MIFPA; Marie Skłodowska-Curie 839090,PGC2018-095317-B-C21; Max Planck Institute for Astronomy; Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics; NOAO; National Central University of Taiwan; National Optical Astronomy Observatories; Science Foundation Ireland University; Turku Collegium of Science, Medicine and Technology; Weizmann Institute for Science; National Science Foundation NSF; U.S. Department of Energy USDOE; National Aeronautics and Space Administration AST-1238877,NNX08AR22G NASA; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation NAS5-26555 GBMF; Merck Institute for Science Education MISE; University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign UIUC; Stanford University SU; Argonne National Laboratory ANL; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 2017A-0260 LBNL; University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee; Ohio State University OSU; California Institute of Technology CIT; University of Chicago; University of Michigan U-M; University of Washington UW; Johns Hopkins University JHU; Texas A and M University TAMU; University of Maryland UMD; University of Hawai'i UH; Los Alamos National Laboratory LANL; University of Portsmouth; Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory SAO; National Centre for Supercomputing Applications NCSA; Horizon 2020 Framework Programme H2020; SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory SLAC; National Research Council NRC; Space Telescope Science Institute STScI; Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Ohio State University CCAPP; Wenner-Gren Stiftelserna; Science and Technology Facilities Council ST/P000312/1 STFC; Royal Society; Royal Astronomical Society MNiSW DIR/WK/2016/07 RAS; University College London UCL; European Commission 842471 EC; University of Nottingham; University of Sussex AST-1440341; University of Edinburgh ED; Queen's University Belfast QUB; Durham University; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG; Suomen Akatemia 324504,328898; Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica CONICYT; Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva MINCyT; Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad MINECO; Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação MCTI; Liverpool John Moores University LJMU; Max-Planck-Gesellschaft MPG; Narodowe Centrum Nauki 2014/14/A/ST9/00121 NCN; Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro FAPERJ; Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos FINEP; European Regional Development Fund ERDF; Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem ELTE
The fraction of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) occurring in the central regions of galaxies is not well constrained at present. This is partly because large-scale transient surveys operate at optical wavelengths, making it challenging to detect transient sources that occur in regions susceptible to high extinction factors. Here we present the discovery and follow-up observations of two CCSNe that occurred in the luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) NGC 3256. The first, SN 2018ec, was discovered using the ESO HAWK-I/GRAAL adaptive optics seeing enhancer, and was classified as a Type Ic with a host galaxy extinction of AV = 2.1−0.1+0.3 mag. The second, AT 2018cux, was discovered during the course of follow-up observations of SN 2018ec, and is consistent with a subluminous Type IIP classification with an AV = 2.1 ± 0.4 mag of host extinction. A third CCSN, PSN J10275082−4354034 in NGC 3256, was previously reported in 2014, and we recovered the source in late-time archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging. Based on template light curve fitting, we favour a Type IIn classification for it with modest host galaxy extinction of AV = 0.3−0.3+0.4 mag. We also extend our study with follow-up data of the recent Type IIb SN 2019lqo and Type Ib SN 2020fkb that occurred in the LIRG system Arp 299 with host extinctions of AV = 2.1−0.3+0.1 and AV = 0.4−0.2+0.1 mag, respectively. Motivated by the above, we inspected, for the first time, a sample of 29 CCSNe located within a projected distance of 2.5 kpc from the host galaxy nuclei in a sample of 16 LIRGs. We find, if star formation within these galaxies is modelled assuming a global starburst episode and normal IMF, that there is evidence of a correlation between the starburst age and the CCSN subtype. We infer that the two subgroups of 14 H-poor (Type IIb/Ib/Ic/Ibn) and 15 H-rich (Type II/IIn) CCSNe have different underlying progenitor age distributions, with the H-poor progenitors being younger at 3σ significance. However, we note that the currently available sample sizes of CCSNe and host LIRGs are small, and the statistical comparisons between subgroups do not take into account possible systematic or model errors related to the estimated starburst ages.