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dc.contributor.authorLópez Comino, José Ángel 
dc.contributor.authorCesca, Simone
dc.contributor.authorNiemz, Peter
dc.contributor.authorDahm, Torsten
dc.contributor.authorZang, Arno
dc.identifier.citationLópez-Comino JÁ, Cesca S, Niemz P, Dahm T and Zang A (2021) Rupture Directivity in 3D Inferred From Acoustic Emissions Events in a Mine-Scale Hydraulic Fracturing Experiment. Front. Earth Sci. 9:670757. doi: [10.3389/feart.2021.670757]es_ES
dc.descriptionThis research has been funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement N degrees 754446 and UGR Research and Knowledge Transfer Found -Athenea3i; and by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) -Projektnummer (407141557). SC and PN received funding from the EU project PostMinQuake, RFCS (899192). AZ was supported by funding received from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme, Grant Agreement No. 691728 (Destress).es_ES
dc.descriptionThe in situ experiment at Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) was supported by the GFZ German Research Center for Geosciences (75%), the KIT Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (15%) and the Nova Center for University Studies, Research and Development Oskarshamn (10%). An additional in-kind contribution of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) for using Äspö HRL as test site for geothermal research is greatly acknowledged.es_ES
dc.description.abstractRupture directivity, implying a predominant earthquake rupture propagation direction, is typically inferred upon the identification of 2D azimuthal patterns of seismic observations for weak to large earthquakes using surface-monitoring networks. However, the recent increase of 3D monitoring networks deployed in the shallow subsurface and underground laboratories toward the monitoring of microseismicity allows to extend the directivity analysis to 3D modeling, beyond the usual range of magnitudes. The high-quality full waveforms recorded for the largest, decimeter-scale acoustic emission (AE) events during a meter-scale hydraulic fracturing experiment in granites at similar to 410 m depth allow us to resolve the apparent durations observed at each AE sensor to analyze 3D-directivity effects. Unilateral and (asymmetric) bilateral ruptures are then characterized by the introduction of a parameter kappa, representing the angle between the directivity vector and the station vector. While the cloud of AE activity indicates the planes of the hydrofractures, the resolved directivity vectors show off-plane orientations, indicating that rupture planes of microfractures on a scale of centimeters have different geometries. Our results reveal a general alignment of the rupture directivity with the orientation of the minimum horizontal stress, implying that not only the slip direction but also the fracture growth produced by the fluid injections is controlled by the local stress conditions.es_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipEuropean Commission 754446 691728es_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipUGR Research and Knowledge Transfer Found -Athenea3ies_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipGerman Research Foundation (DFG) 407141557es_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipEU project PostMinQuake, RFCS 899192es_ES
dc.publisherFrontiers Research Foundationes_ES
dc.rightsAtribución 3.0 España*
dc.subjectEarthquake sourcees_ES
dc.subjectInduced seismicityes_ES
dc.subjectHydraulic fracturinges_ES
dc.subjectAcoustic emissionses_ES
dc.titleRupture Directivity in 3D Inferred From Acoustic Emissions Events in a Mine-Scale Hydraulic Fracturing Experimentes_ES

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