Biochemical Validation of a Self-Administered Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess Diet Using Carotenoids and Vitamins E and D in Male Adolescents in Spain
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Carotenoid intakeVitamin EVitamin DFruit and vegetable intakeFood Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)AdolescenceBiochemical validityNutritional biomarker
Notario-Barandiaran, L.; Navarrete-Muñoz, E.-M.; Valera-Gran, D.; Hernández-Álvarez, E.; Donoso-Navarro, E.; González-Palacios, S.; García-de-la-Hera, M.; Fernández, M.F.; Freire, C.; Vioque, J. Biochemical Validation of a Self-Administered Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess Diet Using Carotenoids and Vitamins E and D in Male Adolescents in Spain. Antioxidants 2021, 10, 750. https://doi.org/ 10.3390/antiox10050750
SponsorshipInstitute of Health Carlos III (ISCIII); Spanish Ministry of Health (FIS 07/0314; PI11/01007); “Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional” (ISCIII/FEDER) for the Miguel Servet Type I Program granted to C. Freire (grant no. CP16/00085); “Instituto de Salud Carlos III/Agencia Estatal de Investigación”, grant number PI18/00825 Project: Dieta y actividad física en embarazo y tras el nacimiento y longitud del telómero en niños y adolescentes: Proyecto TeloDiPA”; Unión Europea (FEDER) “Una manera de hacer Europa”
Reliable tools to evaluate diet are needed, particularly in life periods such as adolescence in which a rapid rate of growth and development occurs. We assessed the biochemical validity of a self-administered food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in a sample of Spanish male adolescents using carotenoids and vitamin E and D data. We analyzed data from 122 male adolescents aged 15–17 years of the INMA-Granada birth cohort study. Adolescents answered a 104-item FFQ and provided a non-fasting blood sample. Mean daily nutrient intakes and serum concentration were estimated for main carotenoids (lutein-zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, α-carotene and β-carotene), vitamins E and D and also for fruit and vegetable intake. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) and the percentage of agreement (same or adjacent quintiles) between serum vitamin concentrations and energy-adjusted intakes were estimated. Statistically significant correlation coefficients were observed for the total carotenoids (r = 0.40) and specific carotenoids, with the highest correlation observed for lutein–zeaxanthin (r = 0.42) and the lowest for β-carotene (0.23). The correlation coefficient between fruit and vegetable intake and serum carotenoids was 0.29 (higher for vegetable intake, r = 0.33 than for fruit intake, r = 0.19). Low correlations were observed for vitamin E and D. The average percentage of agreement for carotenoids was 55.8%, and lower for vitamin E and D (50% and 41%, respectively). The FFQ may be an acceptable tool for dietary assessment among male adolescents in Spain.